DiGiorgi M, Rosen DJ, Choi JJ, et al. Re-emergence of diabetes after gastric bypass in patients with mid- to long-term follow-up

Columbia University Center for Metabolic and Weight Loss Surgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York 10032, USA.
Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases (Impact Factor: 4.07). 05/2010; 6(3):249-53. DOI: 10.1016/j.soard.2009.09.019
Source: PubMed


Studies have shown that type 2 diabetes (T2DM) improves or resolves shortly after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Few data are available on T2DM recurrence or the effect of weight regain on T2DM status.
A review of 42 RYGB patients with T2DM and >or=3 years of follow-up and laboratory data was performed. Postoperative weight loss and T2DM status was assessed. Recurrence or worsening was defined as hemoglobin A1c >6.0% and fasting glucose >124 mg/dL and/or medication required after remission or improvement. Patients whose T2DM recurred or worsened were compared with those whose did not, and patients whose T2DM improved were compared with those whose T2DM resolved.
T2DM had either resolved or improved in all patients (64% and 36%, respectively); 24% (10) recurred or worsened. The patients with recurrence or worsening had had a lower preoperative body mass index than those without recurrence or worsening (47.9 versus 52.9 kg/m2; P = .05), regained a greater percentage of their lost weight (37.7% versus 15.4%; P = .002), had a greater weight loss failure rate (63% versus 14%; P = .03), and had greater postoperative glucose levels (138 versus 102 mg/dL; P = .0002). Patients who required insulin or oral medication before RYGB were more likely to experience improvement rather than resolution (92% versus 8%, P <or=.0001; and 85% versus 15%; P = .0006, respectively).
Our results have shown that beyond 3 years after RYGB, the incidence of T2DM recurrence or worsening in patients with initial resolution or improvement was significant. In our patients, a greater likelihood of recurrence or worsening of T2DM was associated with a lower preoperative body mass index. Before widespread acceptance of bariatric surgery as a definitive treatment for those with T2DM can be achieved, additional study of this recurrence phenomenon is indicated.

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    • "This potentially reflects a “floor effect” of trying to improve HOMA-IR that is already low for that group. Alternatively, this finding could mirror data in some human studies suggesting that diabetes worsens in certain low-BMI or less-diabetic patients after bariatric surgery [41], although the true etiology is unclear and requires further study. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most common bariatric operation; however, the mechanism underlying the profound weight-independent effects on glucose homeostasis remains unclear. Large animal models of naturally occurring insulin resistance (IR), which have been lacking, would provide opportunities to elucidate such mechanisms. Ossabaw miniature swine naturally exhibit many features that may be useful in evaluating the anti diabetic effects of bariatric surgery. Methods: Glucose homeostasis was studied in 53 Ossabaw swine. Thirty-two received an obesogenic diet and were randomized to RYGB, gastrojejunostomy (GJ), gastrojejunostomy with duodenal exclusion (GJD), or Sham operations. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests and standardized meal tolerance tests were performed prior to, 1, 2, and 8 weeks after surgery and at a single time-point for regular diet control pigs. Results: High-calorie-fed Ossabaws weighed more and had greater IR than regular diet controls, though only 70% developed IR. All operations caused weight-loss-independent improvement in IR, though only in pigs with high baseline IR. Only RYGB induced weight loss and decreased IR in the majority of pigs, as well as increasing AUCinsulin/AUCglucose. Conclusions: Similar to humans, Ossabaw swine exhibit both obesity-dependent and obesity-independent IR. RYGB promoted weight loss, IR improvement, and increased AUCinsulin/AUCglucose, compared to the smaller changes following GJ and GJD, suggesting a combination of upper and lower gut mechanisms in improving glucose homeostasis.
    Journal of Diabetes Research 08/2014; 2014:526972. DOI:10.1155/2014/526972 · 2.16 Impact Factor
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    • "DiGiorgi et al.20 reported a remission rate of 64% in a cohort of 42 participants who had undergone RYGB at least 3 years before evaluation. They reported a recurrence of type 2 diabetes in 26%, with a mean follow‐up period of 5 years. "
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    ABSTRACT: Aims/IntroductionLittle is known about the long-term effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in severely obese Asian individuals.Methods and MaterialsA total of 33 severely obese patients with type 2 diabetes underwent RYGB. All patients were followed up for 2 years. Visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat areas were assessed using computed tomography (CT) before, and 12 and 24 months after RYGB. The muscle attenuation (MA) of paraspinous muscles observed by CT were used as indices of intramuscular fat.ResultsThe mean percentage weight loss was 22.2 ± 5.3% at 12 months, and 21.3 ± 5.1% at 24 months after surgery. Compared with the baseline values, the visceral fat area was 53.6 ± 17.1% lower 24 months after surgery, and the abdominal subcutaneous fat area was 32.7 ± 16.1% lower 24 months after surgery. The MA increased from 48.7 ± 10.0 at baseline to 52.2 ± 8.9 (P = 0.009) 12 months after surgery. The MA after the first 12 months maintained changes until 24 months. Triglycerides and free fatty acids were reduced after surgery, whereas the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were increased significantly after surgery. At the last follow-up visit, 18 patients (55%) had diabetes remission. The percentage of iron and vitamin D deficiency was 30% and 52%, respectively.Conclusions We found that patients subjected to RYGB had significant sustained reductions in visceral and intramuscular fat. There were durable improvements in the cardiometabolic abnormalities without any significant comorbidities. However, there were mild nutritional deficiencies in these patients despite daily supplementation with multivitamins and minerals.
    03/2014; 5(2). DOI:10.1111/jdi.12137
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    • "Despite psychological factors contributing to obesity, psychosocial interventions are not routinely offered in bariatric surgery programs. Approximately 20% to 50% of patients begin to regain their weight within the first 1.5 to 2 years following bariatric surgery (Shah et al., 2006) and experience relapse of obesity-related comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (DiGiorgi et al., 2010). Untreated psychological factors might be one of the contributing factors to weight regain. "
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    ABSTRACT: Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for extreme obesity; however, 20% to 50% of patients begin to regain their weight within the first 1.5 to 2 years following surgery. Despite some psychosocial factors predicting postoperative weight loss and weight regain, psychosocial interventions are not routinely offered in bariatric surgery programs. In this paper, we describe a 6-session cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention for preoperative and postoperative bariatric surgery patients with maladaptive eating behaviors or thought patterns, which can be delivered either in person or by telephone. In addition, we describe a small pilot study (n = 8) designed to examine the feasibility and acceptability of the CBT intervention, as well as its effectiveness in improving eating pathology and psychosocial functioning. Most pilot study participants reported improvements in binge eating severity, emotional eating, and depression from pre- to posttreatment, and all participants provided positive qualitative feedback regarding the intervention.
    Cognitive and Behavioral Practice 11/2013; 20(4):529–543. DOI:10.1016/j.cbpra.2012.10.002 · 1.33 Impact Factor
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