Cross-linked hyaluronan gel reduces the acute rectal toxicity of radiotherapy for prostate cancer.
ABSTRACT To prospectively analyze whether cross-linked hyaluronan gel reduces the mean rectal dose and acute rectal toxicity of radiotherapy for prostate cancer.
Between September 2008 and March 2009, we transperitoneally injected 9 mL of cross-linked hyaluronan gel (Hylaform; Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, MA) into the anterior perirectal fat of 10 early-stage prostate cancer patients to increase the separation between the prostate and rectum by 8 to 18 mm at the start of radiotherapy. Patients then underwent high-dose rate brachytherapy to 2,200 cGy followed by intensity-modulated radiation therapy to 5,040 cGy. We assessed acute rectal toxicity using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 grading scheme.
Median follow-up was 3 months. The anteroposterior dimensions of Hylaform at the start and end of radiotherapy were 13 +/- 3mm (mean +/- SD) and 10 +/- 4mm, respectively. At the start of intensity-modulated radiation therapy, daily mean rectal doses were 73 +/- 13 cGy with Hylaform vs. 106 +/- 20 cGy without Hylaform (p = 0.005). There was a 0% incidence of National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 Grade 1, 2, or 3 acute diarrhea in 10 patients who received Hylaform vs. a 29.7% incidence (n = 71) in 239 historical controls who did not receive Hylaform (p = 0.04).
By increasing the separation between the prostate and rectum, Hylaform decreased the mean rectal dose. This led to a significant reduction in the acute rectal toxicity of radiotherapy for prostate cancer.