Cross-linked hyaluronan gel reduces the acute rectal toxicity of radiotherapy for prostate cancer.
ABSTRACT To prospectively analyze whether cross-linked hyaluronan gel reduces the mean rectal dose and acute rectal toxicity of radiotherapy for prostate cancer.
Between September 2008 and March 2009, we transperitoneally injected 9 mL of cross-linked hyaluronan gel (Hylaform; Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, MA) into the anterior perirectal fat of 10 early-stage prostate cancer patients to increase the separation between the prostate and rectum by 8 to 18 mm at the start of radiotherapy. Patients then underwent high-dose rate brachytherapy to 2,200 cGy followed by intensity-modulated radiation therapy to 5,040 cGy. We assessed acute rectal toxicity using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 grading scheme.
Median follow-up was 3 months. The anteroposterior dimensions of Hylaform at the start and end of radiotherapy were 13 +/- 3mm (mean +/- SD) and 10 +/- 4mm, respectively. At the start of intensity-modulated radiation therapy, daily mean rectal doses were 73 +/- 13 cGy with Hylaform vs. 106 +/- 20 cGy without Hylaform (p = 0.005). There was a 0% incidence of National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 Grade 1, 2, or 3 acute diarrhea in 10 patients who received Hylaform vs. a 29.7% incidence (n = 71) in 239 historical controls who did not receive Hylaform (p = 0.04).
By increasing the separation between the prostate and rectum, Hylaform decreased the mean rectal dose. This led to a significant reduction in the acute rectal toxicity of radiotherapy for prostate cancer.
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ABSTRACT: Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging involves the mechanical excitation of tissue using localized, impulsive radiation force. This results in shear-wave propagation away from the region of excitation. Using a single diagnostic transducer on a modified commercial ultrasound (US) scanner with conventional beam-forming architecture, repeated excitations with multiple look directions facilitate imaging shear-wave propagation. Direct inversion methods are then applied to estimate the associated Young's modulus. Shear-wave images are generated in tissue-mimicking phantoms, ex vivo human breast tissue and in vivo in the human abdomen. Mean Young's modulus values of between 3.8 and 5.6 kPa, 11.7 kPa and 14.0 kPa were estimated for fat, fibroadenoma and skin, respectively. Reasonable agreement is demonstrated between structures in matched B-mode and reconstructed modulus images. Although the relatively small magnitude of the displacement data presents some challenges, the reconstructions suggest the clinical feasibility of radiation force induced shear-wave imaging.Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology 01/2004; 29(12):1715-23. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Viscoelastic, pseudoplastic, radiopaque injectable hylan gel for percutaneous embolization was developed and evaluated by in vitro and in vivo tests. The embolization gel is composed of cross-linked hylan (hyaluronan, hyaluronate), tantalum, microcrystalline cellulose, hexamethonium chloride, and thrombin. Upon delivery through small-lumen catheters to the appropriate vascular site, the gel induces formation of a solid blood/gel coagulum. Results from animal studies (rat aorta, rabbit auricular artery) demonstrate that formation of complete and long-lasting arterial blockage is readily achievable without complications due to blood flow, partial vessel obstruction, uncontrolled polymerization, or movement of the gel or its components (specifically thrombin and hexamethonium chloride) into the circulation. Microscopic evaluation indicates that arterial occlusion initially occurs as a result of the injected gel and formed fibrin; at 7 weeks and beyond, arteries are occluded by injected gel, inflammatory cells and fibrosis (scar tissue).Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 07/1991; 25(6):699-710.
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ABSTRACT: Prostate carcinoma exhibits considerable anatomic heterogeneity. Detailed characterization of prostate carcinoma distribution could lead to improved detection procedures and biopsy strategies. We mapped all 607 tumor foci from 180 serially sectioned whole mount radical prostatectomy specimens and used a computer algorithm to plot and summarize the distribution of these foci. We investigated whether specimen and clinical variables predicted differences in tumor distribution. The volume and anatomic location of each tumor focus were determined and digitized. A computer-based algorithm was used to fit the digitized tumor foci to a paradigm prostate. Pseudo-color summary plots of tumor distribution then were computed for selected cases. Of the 180 specimens, 149 (83%) specimens had more than one cancer focus. Most foci (448 of 607 tumor foci, 74%) were in the peripheral zone (PZ). PZ foci near the apex had a significant midline component. Toward the base, PZ foci diverged laterally. Only 3 (2%) of 180 specimens contained foci solely in the transition zone (TZ). Total TZ cancer volume was </= 0.5 cm(3) in 55% (52 of 94) of patients. Computer plots of patients with T1c classification (UICC/AJCC) and specimen Gleason score </= 6 had greater proportions of TZ tumor. Almost all TZ foci occurred with PZ foci. The small volume of most TZ foci may explain the ineffectiveness of TZ biopsies to detect additional cancers during screening. Further, our results suggested that biopsies may be more effective if laterally directed biopsy samples are obtained nearer to the base of the prostate and if apical biopsy samples are obtained more medially.Cancer 11/2000; 89(8):1800-9. · 5.20 Impact Factor