The analgesic effect of the ultrasound-guided transverse abdominis plane block after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea.
Korean journal of anesthesiology 04/2010; 58(4):362-8. DOI: 10.4097/kjae.2010.58.4.362
Source: PubMed


Several methods are performed to control the pain after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Recently, the transverse abdominis plane block has been proposed to compensate for the problems developed by preexisting methods. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of the ultrasound-guided transverse abdominis plane block (US-TAP block) and compare efficacy according to the concentration of local analgesics in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Fifty-four patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomized into three groups. The patients in Group Control did not receive the US-TAP block. The patients in Group B(0.25) and Group B(0.5) received the US-TAP block with 0.25% and 0.5% levobupivacaine 30 ml respectively. After the general anesthesia, a bilateral US-TAP block was performed using an in-plane technique with 15 ml levobupivacaine on each side. Intraoperative use of remifentanil and postoperative demand of rescue analgesics in PACU were recorded. The postoperative verbal numerical rating scale (VNRS) was evaluated at 20, 30, and 60 min, and 6, 12, and 24 hr. Postoperative complications, including pneumoperitoneum, bleeding, infection, and sleep disturbance, were also checked.
The intraoperative use of remifentanil, postoperative VNRS and the postoperative demand of rescue analgesics were lower in the groups receiving the US-TAP block (Group B(0.25) and Group B(0.5)) than Group Control. There were no statistically or clinically significant differences between Group B(0.25) and Group B(0.5). No complications related to the US-TAP block were observed.
The US-TAP block with 0.25% or 0.5% levobupivacaine 30 ml (15 ml on each side) significantly reduced postoperative pain in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

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    • "El-Dawlatly et al.[7] reported a similar significant reduction in intraoperative sufentanil consumption in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (8.6 ± 3.5 mcg vs. 23.0 ± 4.8 mcg, P < 0.01). Similar findings were reported in a study by Ra et al.[15] in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy where intraoperative remifentanil use was significantly lower in patients receiving either 0.5% or 0.25% bupivacaine in comparison to placebo. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Aims: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block has been shown to provide postoperative pain relief following various abdominal and inguinal surgeries, but few studies have evaluated its analgesic efficacy for intraoperative analgesia. We evaluated the efficacy of TAP block in providing effective perioperative analgesia in total abdominal hysterectomy in a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 adult female patients American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II were randomized to Group B (n = 45) receiving TAP block with 0.25% bupivacaine and Group N (n = 45) with normal saline followed by general anesthesia. Hemodynamic responses to surgical incision and intraoperative fentanyl consumption were noted. Visual analog scale (VAS) scores were assessed on the emergence, at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 24 h. Time to first rescue analgesic (when VAS ≥4 cm or on demand), duration of postoperative analgesia, incidence of postoperative nausea-vomiting were also noted. Results: Pulse rate (95.9 ± 11.2 bpm vs. 102.9 ± 8.8 bpm, P = 0.001) systolic and diastolic BP were significantly higher in Group N. Median intraoperative fentanyl requirement was significantly higher in Group N (81 mcg vs. 114 mcg, P = 0.000). VAS scores on emergence at rest (median VAS 3 mm vs 27 mm), with activity (median 8 mm vs. 35 mm) were significantly lower in Group B. Median duration of analgesia was significantly higher in Group B (290 min vs. 16 min, P = 0.000). No complication or opioid related side effect attributed to TAP block were noted in any patient. Conclusion: Preincisional TAP block decreases intraoperative fentanyl requirements, prevents hemodynamic responses to surgical stimuli and provides effective postoperative analgesia.
    Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology 07/2014; 30(3):391-396. DOI:10.4103/0970-9185.137274
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    • "Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the efficacy of TAP block in providing postoperative analgesia for up to 24 h after lower abdominal surgery [10] [11] [12] [13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To assess safety and effectiveness of ultrasound-guided TAP block in children undergoing laparoscopic surgery for undescended testis. Subjects and methods This randomized controlled trial involved 108 children, 3–7 years old, randomly allocated into one of two equal groups; TAP Group and Control Group. All children received general anesthesia using propofol 1.5–2.5 mg/kg, atracurium 0.5 mg/kg and fentanyl 2 μg/kg. TAP Group received 0.5 ml/kg of ropivacaine 0.375% bilaterally under ultrasound guidance and control group received regular analgesics. Quality of analgesia was assessed using Children’s Hospital Eastern Ontario Pain Scale (CHEOPS) and Objective behavioral pain score (OPS). The primary outcome measures were hemodynamic parameters and degree of pain. Secondary outcome measures were intraoperative fentanyl requirement, postoperative rescue analgesia (time and dose), complications, hospital stay and degree of satisfaction of patients and their parents. Results TAP block group had significantly lower intraoperative fentanyl dose (p < 0.001), significantly longer time to first postoperative request of analgesic (p < 0.001), lower analgesic dose during the first postoperative 24 h (p < 0.001) and lower pain scores along the whole 24 postoperative hours. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were within the clinically accepted range in the two groups. Parents’ satisfaction was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in the TAP block group. Conclusion TAP block under ultrasound guidance was easy, safe, reliable and effective analgesic in children undergoing laparoscopic surgery for undescended testis.
    Egyptian Journal of Anaesthesia 07/2014; 30(3). DOI:10.1016/j.egja.2014.01.011
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    • "They attributed the reasons of the differences seen in their trial and studies supporting the analgesic efficacy of TAP blocks for laparoscopic surgery to that studies did not include trocar insertion site local anesthetic infiltration [9] [10] and when trocar site infiltration was added, TAP blocks might not offer any significant supplementary analgesic benefit. We compared a OSTAP block to a placebo block and local anesthetic infiltration into the abdominal port hole wounds. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Pain control in the morbidly obese can be especially challenging because of increased sensitivity to opioid-induced respiratory depression. The subcostal transversus abdominis plane block is associated with a large area of spread (T7-L1). The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that US-guided TAP blocks can reduce opioid consumption during the first 24 h after of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy in comparison with port site local anesthetic infiltration and systemic analgesia. Method Sixty-three ASA II/III adult patients listed for elective laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy were randomly allocated in one of three groups: Group I (OSTAP) received bilateral OSTAP block. Group II (Local) received local anesthetic infiltration at trocar port sites. Group III (Control) placebo group received TAP block and port site infiltration by same volumes of sterile normal saline. Twenty-four hours postopetrative morphine consumption, the dose of fentanyl (μg) required during surgery, equivalent morphine dose in the recovery unit (PACU) and first morphine dose were recorded. The quality of analgesia is assessed by Visual Analogue Scale for 24 h at rest and movement. Results The mean opioid consumptions in PACU showed significant difference between the three groups, P = 0.02. The mean 24 h morphine consumption showed statistically significant difference between groups (P value < 0.001). Significant differences were found between both OSTAP and Local groups with control group (P < 0.001) and also between OSTAP and Local groups (P = 0.02). Pain score of OSTAP group was significantly lower than local infiltration group at 6 and 4 h at rest and movement respectively. OSTAP group had faster extubation time than other groups. Postoperative nausea and vomiting were not significant between groups. No signs or symptoms of local anesthetic systemic toxicity or complications were detected. Conclusion Oblique subcostal TAP block is a good alternative for providing analgesia during the postoperative period. The block is easily performed using ultrasound guidance. It is safe, provides effective analgesia with significant morphine-sparing effect with reduced side-effects of opioids.
    Egyptian Journal of Anaesthesia 07/2014; 30(3). DOI:10.1016/j.egja.2014.01.003
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