CD4(+) T cells, particularly T helper (Th) 2 cells, play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of allergic asthma. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins control the balance of CD4(+) T cell differentiation. Mice that lack SOCS3 in T cells by crossing SOCS3-floxed mice with Lck-Cre-transgenic mice have reduced allergen-induced eosinophilia in the airways. Here, we studied the effects of SOCS3 silencing with small interfering (si) RNA in primary CD4(+) T cells on Th2 cell differentiation and on asthmatic responses in mice. Th2 cells were generated from ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T cell receptor-transgenic mice in vitro and transferred into recipient mice. Transfection of SOCS3-specific siRNA attenuated Th2 response in vitro. Adoptive transfer of SOCS3-siRNA T cells exhibited markedly suppressed airway hyperresponsiveness and eosinophilia after OVA challenge, with a concomitant decrease in OVA-specific CD4(+) T cell accumulation in the airways. To investigate the mechanism of this impaired CD4(+) T cell accumulation, we inactivated SOCS3 of T cells by crossing SOCS3-floxed (SOCS3(flox/flox)) mice with CD4-Cre transgenic mice. CD4-Cre × SOCS3(flox/flox) mice exhibited fewer IL-4-producing cells and more reduced eosinophil infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids than control mice in a model of OVA-induced asthma. Expression of CCR3 and CCR4 in CD4(+) T cells was decreased in CD4-Cre × SOCS3(flox/flox) mice. CCR4 expression was also decreased in CD4(+) T cells after transfer of SOCS3 siRNA-treated T cells. These findings suggest that the therapeutic modulation of SOCS3 expression in CD4(+) T cells might be effective in preventing the development of allergic asthma.
"As described above, SOCS3 deficiency in macrophages protects mice from LPS-shock because of the enhanced anti-inflammatory effect of STAT3 (80). The down-modulation of SOCS3 expression in CD4+ T cells might be effective in preventing the development of allergic asthma (76). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this review, we describe the role of suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3) in modulating the outcome of infections and autoimmune diseases as well as the underlying mechanisms. SOCS3 regulates cytokine or hormone signaling usually preventing, but in some cases aggravating, a variety of diseases. A main role of SOCS3 results from its binding to both the JAK kinase and the cytokine receptor, which results in the inhibition of STAT3 activation. Available data also indicate that SOCS3 can regulate signaling via other STATs than STAT3 and also controls cellular pathways unrelated to STAT activation. SOCS3 might either act directly by hampering JAK activation or by mediating the ubiquitination and subsequent proteasome degradation of the cytokine/growth factor/hormone receptor. Inflammation and infection stimulate SOCS3 expression in different myeloid and lymphoid cell populations as well as in diverse non-hematopoietic cells. The accumulated data suggest a relevant program coordinated by SOCS3 in different cell populations, devoted to the control of immune homeostasis in physiological and pathological conditions such as infection and autoimmunity.
Frontiers in Immunology 02/2014; 5:58. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00058
"Allergic airway inflammation is a T cell dependent phenomenon, characterized by a T helper (Th)2-driven immune response. Pre-clinical and clinical studies have defined that the Th2 subpopulation of CD4+ αβ T lymphocytes and their products (the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5) orchestrate the activation and the influx of eosinophils into the tissue during allergic inflammation (Corrigan et al., 1995; Gonzalo et al., 1996; Mazzarella et al., 2000; Moriwaki et al., 2011). However, there are solid evidences that the recruitment of eosinophils to the allergic site is coordinated by T lymphocytes bearing both T cell receptors (TCRs): the conventional αβ and the unconventional γδ T lymphocytes, as it will be further discussed. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue eosinophil infiltration, which is a hallmark of allergic and helminthic diseases, is mainly coordinated by T lymphocytes, via the production of eosinophilotactic chemokines. Among T lymphocyte subsets, lymphocytes expressing γδ T cell receptor have been determined as a key factor for eosinophil accumulation via direct and indirect mechanisms. This knowledge is strongly supported by the fact that, in different experimental models of eosinophilic airway inflammation and helminth-induced Th2 lung inflammation, an evident tissue accumulation of γδ T lymphocytes is observed. In addition, the depletion of γδ T lymphocytes is correlated with the impairment of eosinophil accumulation in inflamed tissue. γδ T lymphocytes are non-conventional T lymphocytes, which comprise a minor T lymphocyte subset, mainly distributed in the tissue, and present crucial roles in innate and acquired immune responses. γδ T lymphocytes recognize several danger- and pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules and stress antigens in a MHC-independent fashion and can provide rapid tissue-specific responses, via the production of a wide range of chemical mediators capable to modulate other cell populations. These mediators include chemoattractant cytokines and chemokines that attract eosinophils into the tissue by either direct recognition (such as IL-5, CCL11/eotaxin), or indirect mechanisms via the modulation of αβ T lymphocytes and macrophages (through the production of interferon-γ, IL-4, and CCL2/Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, MCP-1, for example). The present review presents an overview of how γδ T lymphocytes coordinate eosinophil accumulation in allergy, by focusing on their role in airway inflammation and by discussing the involvement of cytokines and chemokines in this phenomenon.
Frontiers in Pharmacology 12/2012; 3:200. DOI:10.3389/fphar.2012.00200 · 3.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Various cytokines are involved in the regulation of the immune system and inflammation. Dysregulation of cytokine signaling can cause a variety of diseases, including allergy, autoimmune diseases, inflammation, and cancer. Most cytokines use the so-called janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway, and this pathway is negatively regulated by suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins. SOCS proteins bind to janus kinase and to certain cytokine receptors and signaling molecules, thereby suppressing further signaling events. Studies have shown that SOCS proteins are key physiological regulators of inflammation. Recent studies have also demonstrated that SOCS1 and SOCS3 are important regulators of adaptive immunity.
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