Generalized Bone Loss as a Predictor of Three-Year Radiographic Damage in African American Patients With Recent-Onset Rheumatoid Arthritis

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1665 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.
Arthritis & Rheumatology (Impact Factor: 7.76). 08/2010; 62(8):2219-26. DOI: 10.1002/art.27510
Source: PubMed


To examine the association between baseline bone mineral density (BMD) and radiographic damage at 3 years of disease duration in a longitudinal cohort of African Americans with recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
African American RA patients with a disease duration of <2 years (n = 141) were included in the study. All patients underwent baseline BMD measurements (femoral neck and/or lumbar spine) using dual x-ray absorptiometry. T scores were calculated using normative data from the general population of African Americans. Patients were categorized as having osteopenia/osteoporosis (T score less than or equal to -1) or as being healthy. Hand and wrist radiographs, obtained at baseline and at 3 years of disease duration, were scored using the modified Sharp/van der Heijde method. The association between baseline BMD and total radiographic score at 3 years of disease was examined using multivariable negative binomial regression.
At baseline, the mean age and the mean disease duration were 52.4 years and 14.8 months, respectively; 85.1% of the patients were women. The average total radiographic scores at baseline and at 3 years of disease were 2.4 and 5.7, respectively. In the final reduced multivariable model, adjusting for age, sex, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody positivity, and the presence of radiographic damage at baseline, the total radiographic score at 3 years disease in patients with osteopenia/osteoporosis of the femoral neck was twice that in patients with normal bone density, and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.0084). No association between lumbar spine osteopenia/osteoporosis and radiographic score was found.
Our findings suggest that reduced generalized BMD may be a predictor of future radiographic damage and support the hypothesis that radiographic damage and reduced generalized BMD in RA patients may share a common pathogenic mechanism.

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    • "In our RA cohort, 43.3% had normal BMD, 43.3% had osteopenia, and 13.3% had osteoporosis at the lumber spine. Zhang et al17 found that 38.6% of their subjects had either osteopenia or osteoporosis at the lumbar spine, and 44.9% had either osteopenia or osteoporosis at the femoral neck. "
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    ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis and related fragility fractures are one of the most common complications seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and dramatically affect quality of life. To evaluate changes in bone mineral density in patients with recent onset rheumatoid arthritis (<1 year) and its correlation if any with a modified DAS-28 score and simple erosion narrowing score (SENS). This study included 30 patients with recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis fulfilling the new American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism diagnostic criteria for rheumatoid arthritis and 20 healthy volunteers as controls. All were subjected to a complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, liver function tests, renal function tests, rheumatoid factor, and plain x-rays of the hands and feet. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry DEXA was used to measure bone mineral density (BMD) of the left proximal femur, lumbar spine (L1-L4), and lower distal radius at the time of recruitment. In the RA patients, 13.3% had osteoporosis, 50% had osteopenia, and 36.7% had normal BMD. The most common site of osteoporosis was the lumbar spine (four patients, 13.3%) followed by the femur (two patients, 6.6%), and forearm (only one patient, 3.3%). There was a significantly higher percentage of osteoporosis among RA males than females and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.009). Osteoporosis was more common in patients treated with corticosteroids and disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) than in patients treated with only nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (P = 0.004). Higher disease activity (DAS-28) was found in RA patients with osteoporosis compared to RA patients with normal BMD or osteopenia, but the difference was not statistically significant. Osteoporotic RA patients were found to have a higher SENS score for radiological damage than nonosteoporotic ones. BMD changes do occur in patients with early RA, and are not necessarily correlated with disease activity (DAS-28). However, a significant negative correlation was found between BMD and the score of radiological damage (SENS). Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry is an important investigation to assess BMD in early RA patients.
    Clinical Medicine Insights: Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Disorders 10/2011; 4:87-94. DOI:10.4137/CMAMD.S7773
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the relationship among focal bone erosions and bone mineral density (BMD), 25(OH) vitamin D (25OHD), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) values in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The study included 1191 RA patients (1014 women, 177 men, mean age 58.9 ± 11.1 yrs) participating in a multicenter, cross-sectional study. Radiographic evidence of typical bony erosions on hands or forefeet was found in 64.1% of patients. In those with bone erosions as compared to those without, mean BMD Z score values were significantly lower at both the spine (-0.74 ± 1.19 vs -0.46 ± 1.31; p = 0.05) and the hip (-0.72 ± 1.07 vs -0.15 ± 1.23; p < 0.001). In the subgroup of patients not taking vitamin D supplements, PTH levels were significantly higher in those with erosive arthritis (25.9 ± 14.0 vs 23.1 ± 11.6 pg/ml; p = 0.01); whereas the 25OHD concentrations were very similar in the 2 groups. The mean differences for BMD and PTH among the erosive and nonerosive RA remained statistically significant when values were simultaneously adjusted for all disease and mineral metabolism factors (i.e., age, sex, menopause, disease duration, Disease Activity Score 28-joint count, Health Assessment Questionnaire, activities of daily living, Steinbrocker functional state, glucocorticoid therapy, body weight, and bisphosphonate treatment). Our results suggest that the presence of bone erosions in RA correlates with low BMD levels and high PTH levels, and that these associations are independent of the degree of functional impairment and other common determinants of bone mass and mineral metabolism in adults with RA. These findings suggest that treatments to prevent bone loss or suppress PTH levels might positively affect the progression of bone erosions in RA.
    The Journal of Rheumatology 04/2011; 38(6):997-1002. DOI:10.3899/jrheum.100829 · 3.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the association between BMI and radiographic joint damage (RJD) in RA. van der Heijde-Sharp (vdHS) erosion scores were determined in 499 participants with RA, ages 18-85 years, while enrolled in a clinical trial of golimumab (GO-BEFORE trial). Subjects were MTX and biologic therapy naïve. Multivariable logistic regressions determined the odds of prevalent RJD (defined as vdHS score >10) according to BMI category. Longitudinal analyses evaluated the association between BMI category and progression of vdHS score over 52 weeks. Analyses in a subset of 100 participants examined the association between adipokines and vdHS scores. At enrolment and 52 weeks, 37.6 and 43.6% of participants had RJD. Compared with normal weight, obese subjects had lower odds of RJD [0.40 (95% CI 0.22, 0.74); P = 0.003], and underweight subjects had greater odds [3.86 (95% CI 1.66, 9.00); P = 0.002] at baseline, adjusted for demographic and disease characteristics. The baseline associations between BMI category and RJD were greater among participants with multiple risk factors for bone loss (female >50 years, smoking, glucocorticoid exposure and vitamin D deficiency); test for interaction P = 0.05. Adjustment for adiponectin levels did not attenuate the association between BMI and vdHS scores. Baseline BMI and change in weight did not independently predict radiographic progression (P > 0.1). Higher BMI was independently associated with less RJD and was greatest in participants with risk factors for bone loss. Future studies are needed to examine the associations between RJD, obesity, weight loss and osteoporosis.
    Rheumatology (Oxford, England) 09/2011; 50(11):2100-7. DOI:10.1093/rheumatology/ker294 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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