The CERAD Neuropsychologic Battery Total Score and the progression of Alzheimer disease.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas, Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX, USA.
Alzheimer disease and associated disorders (Impact Factor: 2.69). 01/2010; 24(2):138-42. DOI: 10.1097/WAD.0b013e3181b76415
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To establish the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) neuropsychologic battery as a valid measure of cognitive progression in Alzheimer disease (AD) by deriving annualized CERAD Total Change Scores and corresponding confidence intervals in AD and controls from which to define clinically meaningful change.
Subjects included 383 normal control (NC) and 655 AD subjects with serial data from the CERAD registry database. Annualized CERAD Total Change Scores were derived and Reliable Change Indexes (RCIs) calculated to establish statistically reliable change values. CERAD Change Scores were compared with annualized change scores from the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR) Sum of Boxes, and Blessed Dementia Rating Scale (BDRS).
For the CERAD Total Score, the AD sample showed significantly greater decline than the NC sample over the 4-year interval, with AD subjects declining an average of 22.2 points compared with the NCs' improving an average 2.8 points from baseline to last visit [Group x Time interaction [F(4,1031)=246.08, P<0.001)]. By Visit 3, the majority of AD subjects (65.2%) showed a degree of cognitive decline that fell outside the RCI. CERAD Change Scores significantly correlated (P<0.001) with MMSE (r=-0.66), CDR (r=-0.42), and BDRS (r=-0.38) change scores.
Results support the utility of the CERAD Total Score as a measure of AD progression and provide comparative data for annualized change in CERAD Total Score and other summary measures.


Available from: Linda S Hynan, Apr 19, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sensitive cognitive global scores are beneficial in screening and monitoring for prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD). Early cortical changes provide a novel opportunity for validating established cognitive total scores against the biological disease markers. We examined how two different total scores of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) battery and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) are associated with cortical thickness (CTH) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and prodromal AD. Cognitive and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of 22 progressive MCI, 78 stable MCI, and 98 control subjects, and MRI data of 103 AD patients of the prospective multicenter study were analyzed. CERAD total scores correlated with mean CTH more strongly (r = 0.34-0.38, p < 0.001) than did MMSE (r = 0.19, p = 0.01). Of those vertex clusters that showed thinning in progressive MCI, 60-75% related to the CERAD total scores and 3% to the MMSE. CERAD total scores are sensitive to the CTH signature of prodromal AD, which supports their biological validity in detecting early disease-related cognitive changes.
    01/2013; 3(1):446-58. DOI:10.1159/000356725
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Measuring and predicting Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression is important in order to adjust treatment and allocate care resources. We aimed to identify a combination of subtests from the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Neuropsychological Battery (CERAD-NB) that best correlated with AD progression in follow-up as well as to predict AD progression. A total of 236 participants with very mild [Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) = 0.5] or mild AD (CDR = 1.0) at baseline were followed up for 3 years. The CERAD-NB and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were used to assess cognition, and the CDR scale sum of boxes (CDR-sb) was employed to evaluate AD progression. Generalized estimating equations were used to develop models to predict and follow up disease progression. Performance declined on all CERAD-NB subtests. The ability of the separate subtests to distinguish between groups (baseline CDR = 0.5 or 1.0) diminished during follow-up. The best combination of subtests that explained 62% of CDR-sb variance in follow-up included verbal fluency, constructional praxis, the clock drawing test, and the MMSE. Baseline values of the same combination predicted 37% of the CDR-sb change. A short version of the CERAD-NB subtests provides a promising and time-efficient alternative for measuring cognitive deterioration during AD follow-up. Although the initial signs of AD include memory difficulties, it may be useful to assess non-memory tasks in follow-up.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Background: This study aimed to investigate the influences of age, education, and gender on the two total scores (TS-I and TS-II) of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Neuropsychological assessment battery (CERAD-NP) and to provide normative information based on an analysis for a large number of elderly persons with a wide range of educational levels. Methods: In the study, 1,987 community-dwelling healthy volunteers (620 males and 1,367 females; 50-90 years of age; and zero to 25 years of education) were included. People with serious neurological, medical, and psychiatric disorders (including dementia) were excluded. All participants underwent the CERAD-NP assessment. TS-I was generated by summing raw scores from the CERAD-NP subtests, excluding Mini-Mental State Examination and Constructional Praxis (CP) recall subtests. TS-II was calculated by adding CP recall score to TS-I. Results: Both TS-I and TS-II were significantly influenced by demographic variables. Education accounted for the greatest proportion of score variance. Interaction effect between age and gender was found. Based on the results obtained, normative data of the CERAD-NP total scores were stratified by age (six overlapping tables), education (four strata), and gender. Conclusions: The normative information will be very useful for better interpretation of the CERAD-NP total scores in various clinical and research settings and for comparing individuals' performance of the battery across countries.
    Alzheimer's and Dementia 07/2014; 26(11):1-8. DOI:10.1017/S1041610214001379 · 17.47 Impact Factor