Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Incident Type 2 Diabetes: Results from the SALIA Cohort Study
ABSTRACT Cross-sectional and ecological studies indicate that air pollution may be a risk factor for type 2 diabetes, but prospective data are lacking.
We examined the association between traffic-related air pollution and incident type 2 diabetes.
Between 1985 and 1994, cross-sectional surveys were performed in the highly industrialized Ruhr district (West Germany); a follow-up investigation was conducted in 2006 using data from the Study on the Influence of Air Pollution on Lung, Inflammation and Aging (SALIA) cohort.
1,775 nondiabetic women who were 54-55 years old at baseline participated in both baseline and follow-up investigations and had complete information available.
Using questionnaires, we assessed 16-year incidence (1990-2006) of type 2 diabetes and information about covariates. Complement factor C3c as marker for subclinical inflammation was measured at baseline. Individual exposure to traffic-related particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen dioxide was determined at different spatial scales.
Between 1990 and 2006, 87 (10.5%) new cases of diabetes were reported among the SALIA cohort members. The hazards for diabetes were increased by 15-42% per interquartile range of PM or traffic-related exposure. The associations persisted when different spatial scales were used to assess exposure and remained robust after adjusting for age, body mass index, socioeconomic status, and exposure to several non-traffic-related sources of air pollution. C3c was associated with PM pollution at baseline and was a strong independent predictor of incident diabetes. Exploratory analyses indicated that women with high C3c blood levels were more susceptible for PM-related excess risk of diabetes than were women with low C3c levels.
Traffic-related air pollution is associated with incident type 2 diabetes among elderly women. Subclinical inflammation may be a mechanism linking air pollution with type 2 diabetes.Relevance to clinical practice: Our study identifies traffic-related air pollution as a novel and potentially modifiable risk factor of type 2 diabetes.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Klaus Strassburger, Aug 13, 2015
- SourceAvailable from: Anthony Miller
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- "In recent years, there has been extensive literature suggesting an increased risk in the incidence and mortality of several chronic diseases in association with long-term exposure to air pollutants. The biological plausibility is that air pollutants may promote inflammation, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction that may contribute to the development of chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension and diabetes (Brook et al., 2004; Coogan et al., 2012; Johnson and Parker, 2009; Kramer et al., 2010; Pearson et al., 2010; Puett et al., 2011; U.S. EPA, 2008, 2009, 2013). In addition, air pollution has also been linked to the worsening of diseases of the pulmonary system, including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (To et al., 2013a,b). "
ABSTRACT: Air pollution, such as fine particulate matter (PM2.5), can increase risk of adverse health events among people with heart disease, diabetes, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by aggravating these conditions. Identifying the influence of PM2.5 on prevalence of these conditions may help target interventions to reduce disease morbidity among high-risk populations.
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- "A small number of studies have investigated traffic-related air pollution exposure at participants' residential address as a novel risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although not conclusive, results suggest an association between risk of T2DM and exposure to PM (Kramer et al. 2010; Puett et al. 2011a; Coogan et al. 2012); however, evidence is stronger for NO 2 and distance to road (Raaschou-Nielsen et al. 2013). That the deleterious effects of PM air pollution may extend to the brain have only recently been discovered and research in this area is currently limited and results inconclusive (Guxens and Sunyer 2012). "
ABSTRACT: Despite past improvements in air quality, very large parts of the population in urban areas breathe air that does not meet European standards let alone the health-based World Health Organisation Air Quality Guidelines. Over the last 10 years, there has been a substantial increase in findings that particulate matter (PM) air pollution is not only exerting a greater impact on established health endpoints, but is also associated with a broader number of disease outcomes. Data strongly suggest that effects have no threshold within the studied range of ambient concentrations, can occur at levels close to PM2.5 background concentrations and that they follow a mostly linear concentration-response function. Having firmly established this significant public health problem, there has been an enormous effort to identify what it is in ambient PM that affects health and to understand the underlying biological basis of toxicity by identifying mechanistic pathways-information that in turn will inform policy makers how best to legislate for cleaner air. Another intervention in moving towards a healthier environment depends upon the achieving the right public attitude and behaviour by the use of optimal air pollution monitoring, forecasting and reporting that exploits increasingly sophisticated information systems. Improving air quality is a considerable but not an intractable challenge. Translating the correct scientific evidence into bold, realistic and effective policies undisputedly has the potential to reduce air pollution so that it no longer poses a damaging and costly toll on public health.Environmental Geochemistry and Health 06/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10653-015-9720-1 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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- "Several large cohort studies have examined the role of fine particulate pollution in incident type 2 diabetes (Chen et al., 2013) including traffic-related pollution assessed as nitrogen dioxide (NO 2, likely a marker for locally elevated particulate matter), traffic load in vehicles per day, roadway proximity or some combination thereof (Andersen et al., 2012; Coogan et al., 2012; Puett et al., 2011; Kr€ amer et al., 2010). With one exception (Andersen et al., 2012), most of these studies found an association with incident type 2 diabetes and at least one of the traffic indicators examined. "
ABSTRACT: The association between residential traffic exposure and change in C-reactive protein over 2-years was evaluated using multivariate linear regression including interaction models for traffic and diabetes medication use/type (insulin vs. oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs)). The study population was Puerto Rican adults (n = 356) residing in greater Boston with type 2 diabetes. Traffic was characterized as proximity to roads with >20,000 weekday traffic volumes, and multi-directional traffic density. Increases in CRP concentration were significantly associated with residence ≤100 m of a roadway (p = 0.009) or near multiple roadways (p < 0.001), vs. further away, for individuals using insulin in stratified models, with consistent results in interaction models (p = 0.071 and p = 0.002). As)HAs)HCRP was significantly lower with highest traffic density exposure in stratified (p = 0.03) and interaction models (p = 0.024) for individuals using OHAs. Individuals on insulin experienced increased CRP concentrations with traffic exposure over a 2-year study period, while those using OHAs did not experience increases. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.Environmental Pollution 03/2015; 202:58-65. DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2015.03.012 · 3.90 Impact Factor