AtOSA1, a Member of the Abc1-Like Family, as a New Factor in Cadmium and Oxidative Stress Response

Acad. M. Popov Institute of Plant Physiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Academik Georgi Bonchev, Str., Block 21, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria.
Journal of Plant Research (Impact Factor: 1.82). 01/2011; 124(1):147-54. DOI: 10.1007/s10265-010-0340-7
Source: PubMed


Three wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes, Sadovo, Katya and Prelom, with different tolerance to drought were comparatively evaluated in terms of leaf respiratory responses to progressing dehydration and consecutive rewatering. Under drought stress, the respiration of all varieties gradually decreased, as the drought-tolerant Katya showed the most pronounced decline at earlier stages of dehydration. When water stress intensified, this genotype gave relatively stable respiration rates compared with the drought-sensitive varieties. Additionally, dehydrated Katya leaves displayed lower stomatal conductance and higher photosynthesis values, which resulted in greater water use efficiency during the dehydration period. Combination of drought stress and short-term changes in leaf temperature also induced genotype-specific response that differed from the response to drought only. Over the whole temperature range, the leaves of Katya exposed to dehydration for 14 days, showed higher respiration rates compared to the drought-sensitive varieties. The sensitive varieties maintained higher respiration rates under control conditions and mild dehydration, and very low rates under severe drought. In Katya, respiration and photosynthesis were fully restored from the stress within the first day of rewatering. The drought-sensitive genotypes displayed a considerably slower recovering capacity. The results are discussed in terms of possible physiological mechanisms underlying plant tolerance to drought.

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    • "The apparent significance of stress period for the crop productivity does not rule out the fact that subsequent recovery stages are equally crucial for a proper evaluation of the overall performance (Subramanian and Charest, 1998; Gallé and Feller, 2007; Gallé et al., 2007; Vassileva et al., 2011). The progression and duration of stress, plant developmental stage and other biotic and abiotic factors may influence the stress response. "
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    ABSTRACT: Climate models predict more frequent and more severe extreme events (e.g., heat waves, extended drought periods, flooding) in many regions for the next decades. The impact of adverse environmental conditions on crop plants is ecologically and economically relevant. This review is focused on drought and heat effects on physiological status and productivity of agronomically important plants. Stomatal opening represents an important regulatory mechanism during drought and heat stress since it influences simultaneously water loss via transpiration and CO 2 diffusion into the leaf apoplast which further is utilized in photosynthesis. Along with the reversible short-term control of stomatal opening, stomata and leaf epidermis may produce waxy deposits and irreversibly down-regulate the stomatal conductance and non-stomatal transpiration. As a consequence photosynthesis will be negatively affected. Rubisco activase—a key enzyme in keeping the Calvin cycle functional—is heat-sensitive and may become a limiting factor at elevated temperature. The accumulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) during stress represent an additional challenge under unfavorable conditions. Drought and heat cause accumulation of free amino acids which are partially converted into compatible solutes such as proline. This is accompanied by lower rates of both nitrate reduction and de novo amino acid biosynthesis. Protective proteins (e.g., dehydrins, chaperones, antioxidant enzymes or the key enzyme for proline biosynthesis) play an important role in leaves and may be present at higher levels under water deprivation or high temperatures. On the whole plant level, effects on long-distance translocation of solutes via xylem and phloem and on leaf senescence (e.g., anticipated, accelerated or delayed senescence) are important. The factors mentioned above are relevant for the overall performance of crops under drought and heat and must be considered for genotype selection and breeding programs.
    10/2014; 2. DOI:10.3389/fenvs.2014.00039
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    • "Recently, T. aestivum and T. durum genotypes with differing sensitivities to osmotic stress were evaluated in terms of their gas exchange in response dehydration. Photosynthesis was analyzed in depth, in relation to ROS levels and physiological parameters, for elucidation of the mechanisms by which the tolerant cultivar sustains a high performance of water-use efficiency, maintaining respiration rate and photosynthesis even under stress conditions [83]. PS II (Photosystem II) is a key protein pigment complex of photosynthesis, which aids in light harvesting. "
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    ABSTRACT: The genus Triticum includes bread (Triticum aestivum) and durum wheat (Triticum durum) and constitutes a major source for human food consumption. Drought is currently the leading threat on world's food supply, limiting crop yield, and is complicated since drought tolerance is a quantitative trait with a complex phenotype affected by the plant's developmental stage. Drought tolerance is crucial to stabilize and increase food production since domestication has limited the genetic diversity of crops including wild wheat, leading to cultivated species, adapted to artificial environments, and lost tolerance to drought stress. Improvement for drought tolerance can be achieved by the introduction of drought-grelated genes and QTLs to modern wheat cultivars. Therefore, identification of candidate molecules or loci involved in drought tolerance is necessary, which is undertaken by "omics" studies and QTL mapping. In this sense, wild counterparts of modern varieties, specifically wild emmer wheat (T. dicoccoides), which are highly tolerant to drought, hold a great potential. Prior to their introgression to modern wheat cultivars, drought related candidate genes are first characterized at the molecular level, and their function is confirmed via transgenic studies. After integration of the tolerance loci, specific environment targeted field trials are performed coupled with extensive analysis of morphological and physiological characteristics of developed cultivars, to assess their performance under drought conditions and their possible contributions to yield in certain regions. This paper focuses on recent advances on drought related gene/QTL identification, studies on drought related molecular pathways, and current efforts on improvement of wheat cultivars for drought tolerance.
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    ABSTRACT: Recurrent drought periods of varying duration often cause extensive crop damage and affect wheat production in Southern Europe. This study compares biochemical and ultrastructural responses of four wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars to long‐term field drought, and their contribution to final grain yield. Gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting analyses combined with transmission electron microscopy and grain yield evaluation were employed to assess drought susceptibility of the wheat cultivars. Two of them behaved as drought‐tolerant, the other two presented as drought sensitive. Enhanced degradation of Rubisco large subunit (RLS), Rubisco small subunit (RSS) and Rubisco activase (RA) accompanied by an increased protease activity and reduced levels of heat shock proteins (HSP70) and dehydrins (DHNs) were associated with drought sensitivity. Drought tolerance coincided with relatively stable or increased HSP70 and DHN contents, and unchanged/higher levels of RLS, RSS and RA. Sensitive cultivars were more vulnerable to ultrastructural damages, showing obvious degradation of chloroplast membrane systems and depletion of leaf starch reserves. These drought responses affected yield potential, as tolerant cultivars gave higher yield under intense drought. Thus, our results provide additional insights into the complexity of plant drought responses, identifying multiple interacting traits that may serve as indirect selection criteria for wheat drought tolerance.
    Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 01/2011; 198(2):104-117. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-037X.2011.00492.x · 2.44 Impact Factor
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