Treatment of early-onset schizophrenia.
ABSTRACT Treatment of children who develop schizophrenia in childhood and early adolescence presents unique considerations. There has been increasing attention to the importance of early intervention and whether treatment effects may be affected by brain development.
Several recent trials support the use of antipsychotics for treatment of schizophrenia in children and adolescents. Clozapine shows greater efficacy in children and adolescents than it has in adults. A large-scale trial comparing a first-generation antipsychotic (molindone) with newer agents did not find significant differences in treatment response, although the newer antipsychotics were associated with more severe weight gain. Data regarding effects of antipsychotics on brain development in children and young adolescents with schizophrenia are sparse, although one report found no difference between effects of clozapine and olanzapine on cortical thickness.
Although psychosocial interventions are an important adjunctive treatment, antipsychotic medications continue to be the mainstay of treatment. Careful monitoring of metabolic side effects and age-appropriate intervention is particularly important, as children and adolescents appear to be more likely to develop metabolic abnormalities such as pronounced weight gain, which may significantly impact adherence as well as lead to other health issues.
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ABSTRACT: Studies report contrasting results regarding the efficacy and safety of pharmacological, psychological, and combined interventions in psychosis and schizophrenia in children, adolescents and young adults. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Embase, Medline, PreMedline, PsycINFO, and CENTRAL were searched to July 2013 without restriction to publication status. Randomised trials comparing any pharmacological, psychological, or combined intervention for psychosis and schizophrenia in children, adolescents and young adults were included. Studies were assessed for bias, and GRADE criteria were used to describe the quality of the results. Twenty-seven trials including 3067 participants were identified. Meta-analyses were performed for 12 comparisons: symptoms, relapse, global state, psychosocial functioning, depression, weight and discontinuation. Low quality evidence demonstrated that antipsychotics have small beneficial effects on psychotic symptoms (SMD = -0.42, 95% CI -0.58 to -0.26), and a medium adverse effect on weight gain (WMD = 1.61, 95% CI 0.61 to 2.60) and discontinuation due to side effects (RR = 2.44, 95% CI, 1.12 to 5.31). There were no trials of psychological treatments in under-18 year olds. There was no evidence of an effect of psychological interventions on psychotic symptoms in an acute episode, or relapse rate, but low quality evidence of a large effect for family plus individual CBT on the number of days to relapse (WMD = 32.25, 95% CI -36.52 to -27.98). For children, adolescents and young adults, the balance of risk and benefit of antipsychotics appears less favourable than in adults. Research is needed to establish the potential for psychological treatments, alone and in combination with antipsychotics, in this population.PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(2):e0117166. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Advanced paternal age (APA) is associated with increased risk for schizophrenia, but its effect on treatment response has not been longitudinally studied. Association of parental ages at the time of the child's birth with age of onset, initial symptom severity and treatment response (to placebo and three different weight-based doses of paliperidone ER) in adolescents with schizophrenia was assessed in a post-hoc analysis using data from a 6-week double-blind study, the primary results of which are published (NCT00518323). The mean (SD) paternal age was 29.2 (6.2) years, range (16-50) and maternal age was 26.8 (5.7) years, range (17-42) at childbirth for the 201 adolescents (ages 12-17years) included in the analysis. While parental ages were uncorrelated with age of onset or initial symptom severity, both maternal and paternal ages showed significant effects on treatment response (p<0.03) of all paliperidone ER arms versus placebo. Paternal age was significantly correlated to improvement in positive symptoms and maternal age significantly related to negative symptoms, although only paternal age remained significantly associated with the treatment response in analyses that included both parents' ages. APA was associated with greater treatment response to both paliperidone ER and placebo, but not to age of onset or initial symptom severity in adolescents with schizophrenia. The results support the contention that APA-related schizophrenia has distinct underpinnings from other cases. Further studies are required to explore the role of genetic and environmental factors, and their interactions, in treatment response in this complex disorder.Schizophrenia Research 10/2013; · 4.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent chronic psychiatric illness associated with significant morbidity, mortality, loss of productivity, and diminished quality of life. Typically, only a minority of patients responds to treatment and meet criteria for remission as residual symptoms may persist, the result of an inadequate course of treatment and/or the presence of persistent side effects. The foremost goal of treatment should be to restore patients to full functioning and eliminate or relieve all MDD symptoms, while being virtually free of troublesome side effects. The current available pharmacological options to manage persistent depressive symptoms include augmentation or adjunctive combination strategies, both of which target selected psychobiological systems and specific mood and somatic symptoms experienced by the patient. As well, non-pharmacological interventions including psychotherapies may be used in either first-line or adjunctive approaches. However, the evidence to date with respect to available adjunct therapies is limited by few studies and those published have utilized only a small number of subjects and lack enough data to allow for a consensus of expert opinion. This underlines the need for further longer term, large population-based studies and those that include comorbid populations, all of which are seen in real world community psychiatry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.Psychiatry Research 12/2014; 220S1:S15-S33. · 2.68 Impact Factor