AIDS-defining opportunistic illnesses in US patients, 1994-2007: a cohort study
ABSTRACT To assess the incidence and spectrum of AIDS-defining opportunistic illnesses in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (cART) era.
A prospective cohort study of 8070 participants in the HIV Outpatient Study at 12 U.S. HIV clinics.
We calculated incidence rates per 1000 person-years of observation for the first opportunistic infection, first opportunistic malignancy, and first occurrence of each individual opportunistic illness during 1994-2007. Using stratified Poisson regression models, and adjusting for sex, race, and HIV risk category, we modeled annual percentage changes in opportunistic illness incidence rates by calendar period.
Eight thousand and seventy patients (baseline median age 38 years; median CD4 cell count 298 cells/microl) experienced 2027 incident opportunistic illnesses during a median of 2.9 years of observation. During 1994-1997, 1998-2002, and 2003-2007, respectively, rates of opportunistic infections (per 1000 person-years) were 89.0, 25.2 and 13.3 and rates of opportunistic malignancies were 23.4, 5.8 and 3.0 (P for trend <0.001 for both). Opportunistic illness rate decreases were similar for the subset of patients receiving cART. During 2003-2007, there were no significant changes in annual rates of opportunistic infections or opportunistic malignancies; the leading opportunistic illnesses (rate per 1000 person-years) were esophageal candidiasis (5.2), Pneumocystis pneumonia (3.9), cervical cancer (3.5), Mycobacterium avium complex infection (2.5), and cytomegalovirus disease (1.8); 36% opportunistic illness events occurred at CD4 cell counts at least 200 cells/microl.
Opportunistic illness rates declined precipitously after introduction of cART and stabilized at low levels during 2003-2007. In this contemporary cART era, a third of opportunistic illnesses were diagnosed at CD4 cell counts at least 200 cells/microl.
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ABSTRACT: Background The measurement of hepatitis C virus core antigen (HCV-coreAg) has been shown to be an indicator of active HCV infection. The aim of the present study was 1) to investigate the stability and effectiveness of HCV-coreAg and HCV-RNA quantification in HCV infection with or without HIV-1 coinfection, 2) to explore the association between the HCV-coreAg/HCV-RNA (Ag/RNA) ratio and the immune status in chronic HCV/HIV-1-coinfected patients.MethodsA longitudinal investigation comprised of 227 HCV-monoinfected (n¿=¿129) and HCV/HIV-1-coinfected (n¿=¿98) patients was initiated in August 2009, and 139 (73 with HCV monoinfection and 66 with HCV/HIV-1 coinfection) were followed up in August 2012. Both HCV core antigen and HCV RNA quantification were determined on this cryopreserved plasma. HCV core antigen and HCV RNA quantification were performed subsequently. In addition, an in vitro experiment investigating the possibility of degradation of HCV components (core antigen and RNA) were conducted.ResultsSignificant and stable correlations (p¿<¿0.001) were observed both in chronic HCV-monoinfected and HCV/HIV-1-coinfected patients over the 3-year observation. Coinfected patients with immunocompromised condition had a significantly higher (p¿<¿0.05) HCV-coreAg/HCV-RNA ratios than those patients with immunocompetent condition both at two time points (2009 and 2012). Moreover, the Ag/RNA ratios were negatively correlated with CD4+ T-cell counts (p¿<¿0.001). An in vitro experiment investigated the possibility of the slower degradation of HCV particles under HIV-related immunocompromised condition was conducted and the data demonstrated that the Ag/RNA ratios were significantly higher in HIV-1-positive plasma than in healthy plasma (p¿=¿0.005) in this study.Conclusions Our longitudinal study indicated that the HCV-coreAg presented comparable dynamics over time as HCV RNA in chronic HCV-infected patients. Meanwhile, the HCV-coreAg/HCV-RNA ratio was closely associated with immune status in HCV/HIV-1-coinfected patients.BMC Infectious Diseases 11/2014; 14(1):577. DOI:10.1186/s12879-014-0577-1 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The utility of bone marrow aspiration and biopsy (BMAB) as a diagnostic tool in patients with HIV/AIDS and fever of unknown origin (FUO) is a subject of debate. Because highly active antiretroviral therapy has reduced incidence of opportunistic infections, it is important to reassess the efficacy of BMAB for this diagnostic purpose. To our knowledge, no such studies have been performed in Harris County which has the highest incidence of HIV in the state of Texas. We reviewed all BMABs from patients with HIV/AIDS and FUO or persistent cytopenia(s) from 2007 to 2011. Of 57 evaluable patients, BMAB was positive in 24 samples by acid fast bacilli (AFB) or Gomori methenamine silver (GMS) stains (17.5%), presence of granuloma and/or lymphohistiocytic aggregates (31.6%), culture (21.0%) or a combination. Cultures demonstrated Mycobacterium avium/intracellulare (4), M tuberculosis (2), M gordonae (1), Histoplasma capsulatum (3) and Cryptococcus neoformans (2). There were three cases in which a pathogen was grown in culture but that had a negative of 'direct examination' on tissue sections (negative AFB and GMS special stains, no morphological evidence of granuloma/lymphohistiocytic infiltrates). This study supports the use of diagnostic BMAB as a rapid decision-making tool in patients with HIV and FUO in the proper clinical setting. BMAB demonstrated infection-related evidence prior to positive bone marrow culture in 75% of cases. Special stains and blood cultures had similar diagnostic yield, but BMAB offers faster results. Thus, this procedure assists in clinical decision making and the refinement of treatment in a more timely manner. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.Journal of Clinical Pathology 01/2015; 68(3). DOI:10.1136/jclinpath-2014-202715 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: press as: Cobucci RNO, et al. Assessing the impact of HAART on the incidence of defining and non-defining AIDS cancers among patients with HIV/AIDS: A systematic review. J Infect Public Health (2014),Journal of Infection and Public Health 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jiph.2014.08.003