AIDS-defining opportunistic illnesses in US patients, 1994-2007: a cohort study
ABSTRACT To assess the incidence and spectrum of AIDS-defining opportunistic illnesses in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (cART) era.
A prospective cohort study of 8070 participants in the HIV Outpatient Study at 12 U.S. HIV clinics.
We calculated incidence rates per 1000 person-years of observation for the first opportunistic infection, first opportunistic malignancy, and first occurrence of each individual opportunistic illness during 1994-2007. Using stratified Poisson regression models, and adjusting for sex, race, and HIV risk category, we modeled annual percentage changes in opportunistic illness incidence rates by calendar period.
Eight thousand and seventy patients (baseline median age 38 years; median CD4 cell count 298 cells/microl) experienced 2027 incident opportunistic illnesses during a median of 2.9 years of observation. During 1994-1997, 1998-2002, and 2003-2007, respectively, rates of opportunistic infections (per 1000 person-years) were 89.0, 25.2 and 13.3 and rates of opportunistic malignancies were 23.4, 5.8 and 3.0 (P for trend <0.001 for both). Opportunistic illness rate decreases were similar for the subset of patients receiving cART. During 2003-2007, there were no significant changes in annual rates of opportunistic infections or opportunistic malignancies; the leading opportunistic illnesses (rate per 1000 person-years) were esophageal candidiasis (5.2), Pneumocystis pneumonia (3.9), cervical cancer (3.5), Mycobacterium avium complex infection (2.5), and cytomegalovirus disease (1.8); 36% opportunistic illness events occurred at CD4 cell counts at least 200 cells/microl.
Opportunistic illness rates declined precipitously after introduction of cART and stabilized at low levels during 2003-2007. In this contemporary cART era, a third of opportunistic illnesses were diagnosed at CD4 cell counts at least 200 cells/microl.
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ABSTRACT: In order to achieve the programmatic goals established in the National HIV/AIDS Strategy, virologic suppression remains the most important outcome within the HIV care continuum for individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Therefore, clinicians have dedicated substantial resources to improve adherence and clinic retention for individuals on ART; however, these efforts should be focused first on those most at risk of morbidity and mortality related to AIDS. Our study aimed to characterize the factors that are associated with AIDS-defining illnesses (ADIs) amongst people living with HIV (PLHIV) who are poorly adherent or retained in care in order to identify those at highest risk of poor clinical outcomes. We recruited 99 adult PLHIV with a history of poor adherence to ART, poor clinic attendance, or unsuppressed viral load (VL) from the Infectious Disease Program (IDP) of the Grady Health System in Atlanta, Georgia between January and May 2011 to participate in a survey investigating the acceptability of a financial incentive for improving adherence. Clinical outcomes including the number of ADI episodes in the last five years, VLs, and CD4 counts were abstracted from medical records. Associations between survey items and number of ADIs were performed using chi-square analysis. In our study, 36.4% of participants had ≥1 ADI in the last five years. The most common ADIs were Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, recurrent bacterial pneumonia, and esophageal candidiasis. Age <42.5 years (OR 2.52, 95% CI = 1.08-5.86), male gender (OR 3.51, 95% CI = 1.08-11.34), CD4 nadir <200 cells/µL (OR 11.92, 95% CI = 1.51-94.15), unemployment (OR 3.54, 95% CI = 1.20-10.40), and travel time to clinic <30 minutes (OR 2.80, 95% CI = 1.20-6.52) were all significantly associated with a history of ≥1 ADI in the last five years. Awareness of factors associated with ADIs may help clinicians identify which poorly adherent PLHIV are at highest risk of HIV-related morbidity.AIDS Care 02/2015; 27(7):1-5. DOI:10.1080/09540121.2015.1007114 · 1.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Appropriate use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can markedly decrease the risk of progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and of premature mortality. We aimed to characterize the trends between 1981 and 2013 in AIDS-defining illnesses (ADIs) and in the number AIDS-related deaths in British Columbia (BC), Canada. We included data of 3550 HIV-positive individuals, aged 19 years or older, from different administrative databases in BC. We estimated the relative risk of developing an ADI over time using a Negative Binomial model, and we investigated trends in the percentage of all deaths associated with AIDS using generalized additive models. The number of ADIs has decreased dramatically to its lowest level in 2013. The peak of the AIDS epidemic in BC happened in 1994 with 696 ADIs being reported (rate 42 ADIs per 100 person-years). Since 1997, the number of ADIs decreased from 253 (rate 7 per 100 person-years) to 84 cases in 2013 (rate 1 per 100 person-years) (p-value equals to zero for the trend in the number of ADIs). We have also shown that out of 22 ADIs considered, only PCP maintained its prominent ranking (albeit with much reduced overall prevalence). Finally, we observed that over time very few deaths were related to AIDS-related causes, especially in the most recent years. We showed that the number of new ADIs and AIDS-related mortality have been decreasing rapidly over time in BC. These results provide further evidence that integrated comprehensive free programs that facilitate testing, and deliver treatment and care to this population can be effective in markedly decreasing AIDS-related morbidity and mortality, thus suggesting that controlling and eventually ending AIDS is possible. The British Columbia Ministry of Health, the US National Institutes of Health, the US National Institute on Drug Abuse, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, and the Michael Institute for Health Research.The Lancet HIV 03/2015; 2(3):e92-e97. DOI:10.1016/S2352-3018(15)00017-X
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ABSTRACT: The utility of bone marrow aspiration and biopsy (BMAB) as a diagnostic tool in patients with HIV/AIDS and fever of unknown origin (FUO) is a subject of debate. Because highly active antiretroviral therapy has reduced incidence of opportunistic infections, it is important to reassess the efficacy of BMAB for this diagnostic purpose. To our knowledge, no such studies have been performed in Harris County which has the highest incidence of HIV in the state of Texas. We reviewed all BMABs from patients with HIV/AIDS and FUO or persistent cytopenia(s) from 2007 to 2011. Of 57 evaluable patients, BMAB was positive in 24 samples by acid fast bacilli (AFB) or Gomori methenamine silver (GMS) stains (17.5%), presence of granuloma and/or lymphohistiocytic aggregates (31.6%), culture (21.0%) or a combination. Cultures demonstrated Mycobacterium avium/intracellulare (4), M tuberculosis (2), M gordonae (1), Histoplasma capsulatum (3) and Cryptococcus neoformans (2). There were three cases in which a pathogen was grown in culture but that had a negative of 'direct examination' on tissue sections (negative AFB and GMS special stains, no morphological evidence of granuloma/lymphohistiocytic infiltrates). This study supports the use of diagnostic BMAB as a rapid decision-making tool in patients with HIV and FUO in the proper clinical setting. BMAB demonstrated infection-related evidence prior to positive bone marrow culture in 75% of cases. Special stains and blood cultures had similar diagnostic yield, but BMAB offers faster results. Thus, this procedure assists in clinical decision making and the refinement of treatment in a more timely manner. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.Journal of Clinical Pathology 01/2015; 68(3). DOI:10.1136/jclinpath-2014-202715 · 2.55 Impact Factor