[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and outcome and to elucidate the pathogenesis of ductus arteriosus aneurysm (DAA).
Ductus arteriosus aneurysm is a rare lesion that can be associated with severe complications including thromboembolism, rupture and death.
We reviewed the clinical records, diagnostic imaging studies and available histology of 24 cases of DAA, diagnosed postnatally (PD) in 15 and antenatally (AD) in 9 encountered in five institutions.
Of PD cases, 13 presented at <2 months, and all AD cases were detected incidentally after 33 weeks of gestation during a late trimester fetal ultrasound study. Of the 24, only 4 had DAA-related symptoms and 6 had associated syndromes: Marfan, Smith-Lemli-Opitz, trisomies 21 and 13 and one possible Ehlers-Danlos. Three had complications related to the DAA: thrombus extension into the pulmonary artery, spontaneous rupture, and asymptomatic cerebral infarction. Six underwent uncomplicated DAA resection for ductal patency, DAA size or extension of thrombus. In the four examined, there was histologic evidence of reduced intimal cushions in two and abnormal elastin expression in two. Five of the 24 died, with only one death due to DAA. Of 19 survivors, all but one remain clinically asymptomatic at a median follow-up of 35 months; however, two have developed other cardiac lesions that suggest Marfan syndrome. A review of 200 consecutive third trimester fetal ultrasounds suggests an incidence of DAA of 1.5%.
Ductus arteriosus aneurysm likely develops in the third trimester perhaps due to abnormal intimal cushion formation or elastin expression. Although it can be associated with syndromes and severe complications, many affected infants have a benign course. Given the potential for development of other cardiac lesions associated with connective tissue disease, follow-up is warranted.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 07/2000; 36(1):262-9. · 14.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bronchoscopy is a central technique in diagnosing lung cancer, but also in different therapeutic approaches. A lot of techniques are available. The most common indication for bronchoscopy is for tissue sampling and determining the extent of lung cancer. Established diagnostic techniques are forceps biopsy, aspiration or brush cytology sampling, or needle aspiration. Laser therapy, electrocautery, cryotherapy and stenting are well-described techniques for the palliation of symptoms due to airway involvement in patients with advanced stages. Newer technologies, with an established role in clinical practice, are endobronchial ultrasound, autofluorescence bronchoscopy, and electromagnetic navigation. Other technologies, such as magnification, narrow-band imaging and confocal fluorescence microendoscopy, are in development for the use within the airways.
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