Berries and Ellagic Acid Prevent Estrogen-Induced Mammary Tumorigenesis by Modulating Enzymes of Estrogen Metabolism

James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, KY 40202, USA.
Cancer Prevention Research (Impact Factor: 4.44). 06/2010; 3(6):727-37. DOI: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-09-0260
Source: PubMed


To determine whether dietary berries and ellagic acid prevent 17beta-estradiol (E(2))-induced mammary tumors by altering estrogen metabolism, we randomized August-Copenhagen Irish rats (n = 6 per group) into five groups: sham implant + control diet, E(2) implant + control diet (E(2)-CD), E(2) + 2.5% black raspberry (E(2)-BRB), E(2) + 2.5% blueberry (E(2)-BB), and E(2) + 400 ppm ellagic acid (E(2)-EA). Animals were euthanized at early (6 wk), intermediate (18 wk), and late (24 wk) phases of E(2) carcinogenesis, and the mammary tissue was analyzed for gene expression changes using quantitative real-time PCR. At 6 weeks, E(2) treatment caused a 48-fold increase in cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1; P < 0.0001), which was attenuated by both BRB and BB diets to 12- and 21-fold, respectively (P < 0.001). E(2) did not alter CYP1B1 levels, but both berry and EA diets significantly suppressed it by 11- and 3.5-fold, respectively, from baseline (P < 0.05). There was a 5-fold increase in 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 7 (17betaHSD7), and this was moderately abrogated to approximately 2-fold by all supplementation (P < 0.05). At 18 weeks, CYP1A1 was elevated by 15-fold in E(2)-CD and only E(2)-BB reduced this increase to 7-fold (P < 0.05). Catechol-O-methyltransferase expression was elevated 2-fold by E(2) treatment (P < 0.05), and all supplementation reversed this. At 24 weeks, CYP1A1 expression was less pronounced but still high (8-fold) in E(2)-treated rats. This increase was reduced to 3.2- and 4.6-fold by E(2)-BRB and E(2)-EA, respectively (P < 0.05), but not by E(2)-BB. Supplementation did not alter the effect of E(2) on steroid receptors. The diets also significantly suppressed mammary tumor incidence (10-30%), volume (41-67%), and multiplicity (38-51%; P < 0.05). Berries may prevent mammary tumors by suppressing the levels of E(2)-metabolizing enzymes during the early phase of E(2) carcinogenesis.

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Available from: Harini Aiyer, May 16, 2014
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    • "An extract of mulberry fruit also induced human glioma cell death and reduced glioma tumor growth in vivo [31]. Moreover, black raspberry and blueberry reduced estrogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis [32], and bilberry, lingonberry and cloudberry reduced adenoma formation in Apc- mutated Min/+ mice [33]. The major aim of the present study was to determine the anticancer effect of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice, a rich source of polyphenols (7.15 g/L), on the acute lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cell line, which is deficient for p53 [34], and, if so, to characterize the mechanism involved and to identify active polyphenols involved in the AMJ-induced effects. "
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    ABSTRACT: Polyphenols are natural compounds widely present in fruits and vegetables, which have antimutagenic and anticancer properties. The aim of the present study was to determine the anticancer effect of a polyphenol-rich Aronia melanocarpa juice (AMJ) containing 7.15 g/L of polyphenols in the acute lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cell line, and, if so, to clarify the underlying mechanism and to identify the active polyphenols involved. AMJ inhibited cell proliferation, which was associated with cell cycle arrest in G(2)/M phase, and caused the induction of apoptosis. These effects were associated with an upregulation of the expression of tumor suppressor p73 and active caspase 3, and a downregulation of the expression of cyclin B1 and the epigenetic integrator UHRF1. AMJ significantly increased the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential and caused the release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm. Treatment with intracellular ROS scavengers prevented the AMJ-induced apoptosis and upregulation of the expression of p73 and active caspase 3. The fractionation of the AMJ and the use of identified isolated compounds indicated that the anticancer activity was associated predominantly with chlorogenic acids, some cyanidin glycosides, and derivatives of quercetin. AMJ treatment also induced apoptosis of different human lymphoblastic leukemia cells (HSB-2, Molt-4 and CCRF-CEM). In addition, AMJ exerted a strong pro-apoptotic effect in human primary lymphoblastic leukemia cells but not in human normal primary T-lymphocytes. Thus, the present findings indicate that AMJ exhibits strong anticancer activity through a redox-sensitive mechanism in the p53-deficient Jurkat cells and that this effect involves several types of polyphenols. They further suggest that AMJ has chemotherapeutic properties against acute lymphoblastic leukemia by selectively targeting lymphoblast-derived tumor cells.
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