Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Dramatically Accelerates Tumorigenesis and Enhances Oncoprotein Translation in the Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus-Wnt-1 Mouse Model of Breast Cancer

Program in Cell and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 9.33). 06/2010; 70(12):4868-79. DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-4404
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Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) cooperates with the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway to promote mammary tumorigenesis. To investigate the mechanisms involved in FGF/Wnt cooperation, we genetically engineered a model of inducible FGF receptor (iFGFR) signaling in the context of the well-established mouse mammary tumor virus-Wnt-1 transgenic mouse. In the bigenic mice, iFGFR1 activation dramatically enhanced mammary tumorigenesis. Expression microarray analysis did not show transcriptional enhancement of Wnt/beta-catenin target genes but instead showed a translational gene signature that also correlated with elevated FGFR1 and FGFR2 in human breast cancer data sets. Additionally, iFGFR1 activation enhanced recruitment of RNA to polysomes, resulting in a marked increase in protein expression of several different Wnt/beta-catenin target genes. FGF pathway activation stimulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase and the phosphorylation of key translation regulators both in vivo in the mouse model and in vitro in a human breast cancer cell line. Our results suggest that cooperation of the FGF and Wnt pathways in mammary tumorigenesis is based on the activation of protein translational pathways that result in, but are not limited to, increased expression of Wnt/beta-catenin target genes (at the level of protein translation). Further, they reveal protein translation initiation factors as potential therapeutic targets for human breast cancers with alterations in FGF signaling.

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Available from: Brian York, Sep 30, 2015
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    • "Since we found disproportionate reductions in serum circulating FGF23 protein and bone Fgf23 mRNA levels in compound Hyp;Fgfr1Dmp1-cKO mice, and FGFR1 is known to enhance recruitment of RNA to polysomes to increase in protein expression in other systems [62], we examined if Fgfr1 regulate Fgf23 protein expression through an effect to stimulate mRNA translation. For these studies we transfected human FGF23-V5-His cDNA expression plasmid into mouse MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts and assessed epitope tagged FGF23 protein production before and after stimulation with FGF2. "
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    ABSTRACT: Increases in fibroblastic growth factor 23 (FGF23 or Fgf23) production by osteocytes result in hypophosphatemia and rickets in the Hyp mouse homologue of X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH). Fibroblastic growth factor (FGF) signaling has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Hyp. Here, we conditionally deleted FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1 or Fgfr1) in osteocytes of Hyp mice to investigate the role of autocrine/paracrine FGFR signaling in regulating FGF23 production by osteocytes. Crossing dentin matrix protein 1 (Dmp1)-Cre;Fgfr1null/+ mice with female Hyp;Fgfr1flox/flox mice created Hyp and Fgfr1 (Fgfr1Dmp1-cKO)-null mice (Hyp;Fgfr1Dmp1-cKO) with a 70% decrease in bone Fgfr1 transcripts. Fgfr1Dmp1-cKO-null mice exhibited a 50% reduction in FGF23 expression in bone and 3-fold reduction in serum FGF23 concentrations, as well as reductions in sclerostin (Sost), phosphate regulating endopeptidase on X chromosome (PHEX or Phex), matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (Mepe), and Dmp1 transcripts, but had no demonstrable alterations in phosphate or vitamin D homeostasis or skeletal morphology. Hyp mice had hypophosphatemia, reductions in 1,25(OH)2D levels, rickets/osteomalacia and elevated FGF2 expression in bone. Compared to Hyp mice, compound Hyp;Fgfr1Dmp1-cKO-null mice had significant improvement in rickets and osteomalacia in association with a decrease in serum FGF23 (3607 to 1099 pg/ml), an increase in serum phosphate (6.0 mg/dl to 9.3 mg/dl) and 1,25(OH)2D (121±23 to 192±34 pg/ml) levels, but only a 30% reduction in bone FGF23 mRNA expression. FGF23 promoter activity in osteoblasts was stimulated by FGFR1 activation and inhibited by overexpression of a dominant negative FGFR1(TK-), PLCγ and MAPK inhibitors. FGF2 also stimulated the translation of an FGF23 cDNA transfected into osteoblasts via a FGFR1 and PI3K/Akt-dependent mechanism. Thus, activation of autocrine/paracrine FGF pathways is involved in the pathogenesis of Hyp through FGFR1-dependent regulation of FGF23 by both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. This may serve to link local bone metabolism with systemic phosphate and vitamin D homeostasis.
    PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e104154. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0104154 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "This observation was also reflected in the two TgMMTV-Wnt1 expression classes that also differed by median tumor latency: Wnt1-EarlyEx (8.8 weeks) and Wnt1-LateEx (22.2 weeks) (Wilcoxon Rank Sum P-value <0.001). Lastly, about 40% of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) driven Wnt1 tumors have cooperative activation of fibroblast growth factor signaling [38], a phenotype that is known to decrease tumor latency [16], and consistent with this, 88% (7/8) of TgMMTV-Wnt1/iFgfr2 tumors in our dataset were also classified as Wnt1-EarlyEx. "
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    ABSTRACT: Human breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease consisting of multiple molecular subtypes. Genetically engineered mouse models are a useful resource for studying mammary cancers in vivo under genetically controlled and immune competent conditions. Identifying murine models with conserved human tumor features will facilitate etiology determinations, highlight the effects of mutations on pathway activation, and should improve preclinical drug testing. Transcriptomic profiles of 27 murine models of mammary carcinoma and normal mammary tissue were determined using gene expression microarrays. Hierarchical clustering analysis identified 17 distinct murine subtypes. Cross-species analyses using three independent human breast cancer datasets identified eight murine classes that resemble specific human breast cancer subtypes. Multiple models were associated with human basal-like tumors including TgC3(1)-Tag, TgWap-Myc and Trp53-/-. Interestingly, the TgWAPCre-Etv6 model mimicked the HER2-enriched subtype, a group of human tumors without a murine counterpart in previous comparative studies. Gene signature analysis identified hundreds of commonly expressed pathway signatures between linked mouse and human subtypes, highlighting potentially common genetic drivers of tumorigenesis. This study of murine models of breast carcinoma encompasses the largest comprehensive genomic dataset to date to identify human-to-mouse disease subtype counterparts. Our approach illustrates the value of comparisons between species to identify murine models that faithfully mimic the human condition and indicates that multiple genetically engineered mouse models are needed to represent the diversity of human breast cancers. The reported trans-species associations should guide model selection during preclinical study design to ensure appropriate representatives of human disease subtypes are used.
    Genome biology 11/2013; 14(11):R125. DOI:10.1186/gb-2013-14-11-r125 · 10.81 Impact Factor
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    • "Nonetheless, data presented in this study suggest FGFR2 is a target for overcoming anti-estrogen resistance in breast cancer. FGFRs (both 1 and 2) are upregulated in breast cancer and cooperate with Wnt signaling to enhance mammary tumorigenesis [56]. Whether E2-induced splicing of FGFR2 and AXIN-1 (a negative regulator of Wnt) contributes to this cooperative tumorigenesis and how aberrant splicing events contribute to response to therapy remains to be investigated. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Alternative splicing is critical for generating complex proteomes in response to extracellular signals. Nuclear receptors including estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and their ligands promote alternative splicing. The endogenous targets of ERα:estradiol (E2)-mediated alternative splicing and the influence of extracellular kinases that phosphorylate ERα on E2-induced splicing are unknown. Methods MCF-7 and its anti-estrogen derivatives were used for the majority of the assays. CD44 mini gene was used to measure the effect of E2 and AKT on alternative splicing. ExonHit array analysis was performed to identify E2 and AKT-regulated endogenous alternatively spliced apoptosis-related genes. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed to verify alternative splicing. ERα binding to alternatively spliced genes was verified by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation-ELISA and Annexin V labeling assays were done to measure cell proliferation and apoptosis, respectively. Results We identified the targets of E2-induced alternative splicing and deconstructed some of the mechanisms surrounding E2-induced splicing by combining splice array with ERα cistrome and gene expression array. E2-induced alternatively spliced genes fall into at least two subgroups: coupled to E2-regulated transcription and ERα binding to the gene without an effect on rate of transcription. Further, AKT, which phosphorylates both ERα and splicing factors, influenced ERα:E2 dependent splicing in a gene-specific manner. Genes that are alternatively spliced include FAS/CD95, FGFR2, and AXIN-1. E2 increased the expression of FGFR2 C1 isoform but reduced C3 isoform at mRNA level. E2-induced alternative splicing of FAS and FGFR2 in MCF-7 cells correlated with resistance to FAS activation-induced apoptosis and response to keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), respectively. Resistance of MCF-7 breast cancer cells to the anti-estrogen tamoxifen was associated with ERα-dependent overexpression of FGFR2, whereas resistance to fulvestrant was associated with ERα-dependent isoform switching, which correlated with altered response to KGF. Conclusion E2 may partly alter cellular proteome through alternative splicing uncoupled to its effects on transcription initiation and aberration in E2-induced alternative splicing events may influence response to anti-estrogens.
    BMC Medical Genomics 06/2013; 6(1):21. DOI:10.1186/1755-8794-6-21 · 2.87 Impact Factor
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