To identify unique biochemical pathways in embryonic stem cell-derived insulin-producing cells as potential therapeutic targets to prevent or delay beta-cell dysfunction or death in diabetic patients, comparative genome-wide gene expression studies of recently derived mouse insulin-producing cell lines and their progenitor cell lines were performed using microarray technology. Differentially expressed genes were functionally clustered to identify important biochemical pathways in these insulin-producing cell lines. Biochemical or cellular assays were then performed to assess the relevance of these pathways to the biology of these cells. A total of 185 genes were highly expressed in the insulin-producing cell lines, and computational analysis predicted the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway as important pathways in these cell lines. Insulin-producing ERoSHK cells were more resistant to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced oxidative stress. Inhibition of PPP by dehydroepiandrosterone and 6-aminonicotinamide abrogated this H(2)O(2) resistance with a concomitant decrease in PPP activity as measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, which is essential in maintaining membrane homeostasis in secreting cells, was up-regulated by glucose in ERoSHK but not in their progenitor ERoSH cells. Its inhibition by chlorpromazine at high glucose concentration was toxic to the cells. Troglitazone, a PPARG agonist, up-regulated expression of Ins1 and Ins2 but not Glut2. Gene expression analysis has identified the PPP, clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and the PPAR signaling pathway as the major delineating pathways in these insulin-producing cell lines, and their biological relevance was confirmed by biochemical and cellular assays.
"Most importantly, these cells can reverse hyperglycemia when grafted into streptozotocin-treated mice . ERoSHK6 cells also exhibit biochemical pathways that are highly characteristic of β cells, such as the pentose phosphate pathway, clathrin-mediated endocytosis and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway . ERoSHK6 cells are ideal for investigating the effects of chronic hyperglycemia on pancreatic β cells not only for their close resemblance to β cells but also for their capacity to be propagated in culture for extended periods, unlike primary β cells. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic high glucose (HG) inflicts glucotoxicity on vulnerable cell types such as pancreatic β cells and contributes to insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion in diabetic patients. To identify HG-induced cellular aberrations that are candidate mediators of glucotoxicity in pancreatic β cells, we analyzed gene expression in ERoSHK6, a mouse insulin-secreting cell line after chronic HG exposure (six-day exposure to 33.3 mM glucose). Chronic HG exposure which reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) increased transcript levels of 185 genes that clustered primarily in 5 processes namely cellular growth and proliferation; cell death; cellular assembly and organization; cell morphology; and cell-to-cell signaling and interaction. The former two were validated by increased apoptosis of ERoSHK6 cells after chronic HG exposure and reaffirmed the vulnerability of β cells to glucotoxicity. The three remaining processes were partially substantiated by changes in cellular morphology and structure, and instigated an investigation of the cytoskeleton and cell-cell adhesion. These studies revealed a depolymerized actin cytoskeleton that lacked actin stress fibers anchored at vinculin-containing focal adhesion sites as well as loss of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adherence after exposure to chronic HG, and were concomitant with constitutive ERK1/2 phosphorylation that was refractory to serum and glucose deprivation. Although inhibition of ERK phosphorylation by PD98059 promoted actin polymerization, it increased apoptosis and GSIS impairment. These findings suggest that ERK phosphorylation is a proximate regulator of cellular processes targeted by chronic HG-induced gene expression and that dynamic actin polymerization and depolymerization is important in β cell survival and function. Therefore, chronic HG alters gene expression and signal transduction to predispose the cytoskeleton towards apoptosis and GSIS impairment.
PLoS ONE 09/2012; 7(9):e44988. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0044988 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Shortage of cadaveric pancreata and requirement of immune suppression are two major obstacles in transplantation therapy of type 1 diabetes. Here, we investigate whether i.p. transplantation of alginate-encapsulated insulin-producing cells from the embryo-derived mouse embryo progenitor-derived insulin-producing-1 (MEPI-1) line could lower hyperglycemia in immune-competent, allogeneic diabetic mice. Within days after transplantation, hyperglycemia was reversed followed by about 2.5 months of normo- to moderate hypoglycemia before relapsing. Mice transplanted with unencapsulated MEPI cells relapsed within 2 weeks. Removal of the transplanted capsules by washing of the peritoneal cavity caused an immediate relapse of hyperglycemia that could be reversed with a second transplantation. The removed capsules had fibrotic overgrowth but remained permeable to 70 kDa dextrans and displayed glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Following transplantation, the number of cells in capsules increased initially, before decreasing to below the starting cell number at 75 days. Histological examination showed that beyond day 40 post-transplantation, encapsulated cell clusters exhibited proliferating cells with a necrotic core. Blood glucose, insulin levels, and oral glucose tolerance test in the transplanted animals correlated directly with the number of viable cells remaining in the capsules. Our study demonstrated that encapsulation could effectively protect MEPI cells from the host immune system without compromising their ability to correct hyperglycemia in immune-competent diabetic mice for 2.5 months, thereby providing proof that immunoisolation of expansible but immune-incompatible stem cell-derived surrogate β-cells by encapsulation is a viable diabetes therapy.
Journal of Endocrinology 03/2011; 208(3):245-55. DOI:10.1530/JOE-10-0378 · 3.72 Impact Factor
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