Differential adipokine response in genetically predisposed lean and obese rats during inflammation: a role in modulating experimental colitis?
ABSTRACT The relationship between a predisposition to obesity and the development of colitis is not well understood. Our aim was to characterize the adipokine response and the extent of colitis in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. DIO and control, diet-resistant (DR) animals were administered either saline or trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) to induce colitis. Macroscopic damage scores and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were measured to determine the extent of inflammation. Trunk blood was collected for the analysis of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) as well as leptin, ghrelin, and adiponectin. Colonic epithelial physiology was assessed using Ussing chambers. DIO rats had a modestly increased circulating PAI-1 before TNBS treatment; however, during colitis, DR animals had more than a fourfold increase in circulating PAI-1 compared with DIO rats. Circulating leptin was higher in DIO rats compared with DR animals, in the inflamed and noninflamed states. These changes in TNBS-induced adipokine profile were accompanied by decreased macroscopic tissue damage score in DIO animals compared with DR tissues. Furthermore, TNBS-treated DR animals lost significantly more weight than DIO rats during active inflammation. Colonic epithelial physiology was comparable between groups, as was MPO activity. The factors contributing to the decreased colonic damage are almost certainly multifold, driven by both genetic and environmental factors, of which adipokines are likely to play a part given the increasing body of evidence for their role in modulating intestinal inflammation.
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ABSTRACT: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD)-and in particular Crohn's disease-are immune-mediated processes that result in denuded intestinal mucosa and can produce decreased appetite, weight loss, and systemic inflammation. Current treatments include anti-inflammatory medications, immunomodulators, and feeding interventions. Ghrelin is an endogenous orexigenic hormone that directly stimulates growth hormone release, increases gut motility, and has cardiovascular and anti-inflammatory properties. Although ghrelin levels are elevated in active IBD, administration of ghrelin in most (but not all) animal models of colitis has produced improvements in disease activity and systemic inflammation. The mechanism for these effects is not known but may relate to decreased inflammation, increased motility, increased appetite, and increased colonic blood flow. Human trials have not been performed, however, and more research is clearly needed.International Journal of Peptides 01/2011; 2011:189242.