Pretreatment with nafamostat mesilate, a kallikrein inhibitor, to decrease withdrawal response associated with rocuronium.
ABSTRACT This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to examine the preventive effect of nafamostat mesilate, a kallikrein inhibitor, on the withdrawal response associated with rocuronium injection.
Ninety American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) physical status I or II patients, aged 18-65 years, were randomly divided into two groups that received either a 1.5-ml solution containing 1.5 mg nafamostat mesilate diluted in a 5% glucose solution or a 1.5-ml 5% glucose solution. Anesthesia was induced by 5 mg/kg 2.5% thiopental. After confirming loss of consciousness, a tourniquet was applied to the mid forearm and tightened to block venous flow. The test solution was then administered, 1 min after which the tourniquet was removed and 0.6 mg/kg rocuronium was administered. Each patient's response to rocuronium injection was graded on a four-point scale in a double-blind manner. Activated coagulation time and plasma potassium concentration were measured before and 5 and 10 min after nafamostat administration.
The incidence of withdrawal response was 68.9% in the control group and 24.4% in the nafamostat group (P < 0.001). The number of patients showing generalized movement (response 4) with the rocuronium injection was significantly lower in nafamostat group [1 (2.2%)] than the control group [15 (33.3%)], P < 0.001. Five and 10 min after nafamostat administration, measured potassium and activated coagulation time were similar to baseline values.
Pretreatment with 1.5 mg nafamostat mesilate decreased withdrawal response associated with rocuronium injection.
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ABSTRACT: We compared the efficacy of ondansetron, lidocaine, tramadol, and fentanyl in minimizing pain caused by the injection of rocuronium in 250 patients. After tourniquet application on the forearm, the patients were given saline (3 mL) (Group 1, n = 50), ondansetron (4 mg) (Group 2, n = 50), lidocaine (30 mg) (Group 3, n = 50), tramadol (50 mg) (Group 4, n = 50), or fentanyl (100 microg) (Group 5, n = 50) diluted into a 3-mL solution. The occlusion was released after 20 s and rocuronium was injected over 10-15 s. The patients were observed and asked immediately if they had pain in the arm, and the response was assessed. Reactions such as discomfort and pain, withdrawal of the hand, and so on after the administration of rocuronium were recorded as side effects for 24 h. Ten patients in Group 1, 28 patients in Group 2, 37 patients in Group 3, 30 patients in Group 4, and 15 patients in Group 5 reported no pain. Light pain was seen in 11 patients in Group 1, 14 patients in Group 2, 11 patients in Group 3, 12 patients in Group 4, and 20 patients in Group 5. Moderate pain was seen in 15 patients in Group 1, 6 patients in Group 2, 2 patients in Group 3, 8 patients in Group 4, and 10 patients in Group 5. Severe pain was seen in 14 patients in Group 1, 2 patients in Group 2, 0 patients in Group 3, 0 patients in Group 4, and 5 patients in Group 5. Correlation determined with log-linear analysis found in Group 1 pain score 0 (P < 0.001), Group 1 pain score 1 (P < 0.001), and Group 3 pain score 0 (P < 0.001). We conclude that ondansetron, lidocaine, tramadol, and fentanyl decrease the level of rocuronium injection pain. Among these drugs, lidocaine is the most effective, whereas fentanyl is the least effective. IMPLICATIONS: We compared the efficacy of ondansetron, lidocaine, tramadol, and fentanyl in minimizing the pain on injection of rocuronium in 250 patients. Ondansetron, lidocaine, tramadol, and fentanyl were effective in preventing and decreasing the level of rocuronium injection pain. Among these drugs, lidocaine was the most effective, and fentanyl was the least effective.Anesthesia & Analgesia 06/2002; 94(6):1517-20, table of contents. · 3.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate and compare the efficacy and related side effects of alfentanil and remifentanil in preventing the withdrawal movement associated with rocuronium injection. Prospective, randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Operating room of a university hospital. 115 ASA physical status I and II adult patients. Patients were randomly allocated to one of three study groups. Group C received saline, Group A received alfentanil 10 microg/kg, and Group R received remifentanil one microg/kg, each in a volume of three mL. Treatments were injected over 30 seconds, followed by thiopental sodium. At 90 seconds after the start of the study drug injection, rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg was injected over 10 seconds. Cough, breathholding, and thoracic muscle rigidity were observed while injecting the study drug. Each patient's response to the rocuronium injection was graded on a 4-point scale in a blinded manner. During injection of the study drug, Group R showed a significantly higher frequency of cough than Group A (24% vs. 2%; P < 0.05). One Group R patient presented with apnea. Frequency of withdrawal movement in Groups A and R were significantly lower than that in Group C (6% and 0% vs. 63%; P < 0.0001) but there was no significant difference between the two groups. When administered 90 seconds before rocuronium injection, alfentanil showed a comparable effect to that of remifentanil in attenuating rocuronium-associated withdrawal movement, and a lower frequency of side effects such as cough.Journal of clinical anesthesia 03/2009; 21(1):9-12. · 1.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pain from rocuronium injection is a common side-effect reported to occur in 50-80% of the patients. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of pretreatment with i.v. remifentanil on prevention of withdrawal response during rocuronium injection in paediatric patients. After obtaining parental consents, 70 paediatric patients were randomly allocated into two groups to receive either i.v. remifentanil 1 mug kg(-1) (remifentanil group, n=35) or i.v. saline 5 ml (saline group, n=35). Anaesthesia was induced with thiopental sodium 2.5% (5 mg kg(-1)) and the test drug was injected over 30 s. One minute after the test drug injection, rocuronium 1% (0.6 mg kg(-1)) was injected over 5 s and the response was recorded. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate were recorded on arrival in the operating theatre, before and 1 min after the tracheal intubation. The overall incidence of withdrawal movements was significantly higher in the saline group (33 patients; 94%) than that in the remifentanil group (8 patients; 23%) (P<0.001). No patient in the remifentanil group showed generalized movement, whereas 51% of patients in the saline group did. Remifentanil prevented significant increase in MAP after intubation. This study demonstrated that pretreatment with remifentanil 1 microg kg(-1) provided a safe and simple method for reducing the incidence of rocuronium-associated withdrawal movement with haemodynamic stability in children.BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 01/2007; 98(1):120-3. · 4.24 Impact Factor