Article

Distamycin A Inhibits HMGA1-Binding to the P-Selectin Promoter and Attenuates Lung and Liver Inflammation during Murine Endotoxemia

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 05/2010; 5(5):e10656. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010656
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The architectural transcription factor High Mobility Group-A1 (HMGA1) binds to the minor groove of AT-rich DNA and forms transcription factor complexes ("enhanceosomes") that upregulate expression of select genes within the inflammatory cascade during critical illness syndromes such as acute lung injury (ALI). AT-rich regions of DNA surround transcription factor binding sites in genes critical for the inflammatory response. Minor groove binding drugs (MGBs), such as Distamycin A (Dist A), interfere with AT-rich region DNA binding in a sequence and conformation-specific manner, and HMGA1 is one of the few transcription factors whose binding is inhibited by MGBs.
To determine whether MGBs exert beneficial effects during endotoxemia through attenuating tissue inflammation via interfering with HMGA1-DNA binding and modulating expression of adhesion molecules.
Administration of Dist A significantly decreased lung and liver inflammation during murine endotoxemia. In intravital microscopy studies, Dist A attenuated neutrophil-endothelial interactions in vivo following an inflammatory stimulus. Endotoxin induction of P-selectin expression in lung and liver tissue and promoter activity in endothelial cells was significantly reduced by Dist A, while E-selectin induction was not significantly affected. Moreover, Dist A disrupted formation of an inducible complex containing NF-kappaB that binds an AT-rich region of the P-selectin promoter. Transfection studies demonstrated a critical role for HMGA1 in facilitating cytokine and NF-kappaB induction of P-selectin promoter activity, and Dist A inhibited binding of HMGA1 to this AT-rich region of the P-selectin promoter in vivo.
We describe a novel targeted approach in modulating lung and liver inflammation in vivo during murine endotoxemia through decreasing binding of HMGA1 to a distinct AT-rich region of the P-selectin promoter. These studies highlight the ability of MGBs to function as molecular tools for dissecting transcriptional mechanisms in vivo and suggest alternative treatment approaches for critical illness.

0 Followers
 · 
105 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The condensed structure of chromatin limits access of cellular machinery towards template DNA. This in turn represses essential processes like transcription, replication, repair and recombination. The repression is alleviated by a variety of energy dependent processes, collectively known as "chromatin remodeling". In a eukaryotic cell, a fine balance between condensed and de-condensed states of chromatin helps to maintain an optimum level of gene expression. DNA binding small molecules have the potential to perturb such equilibrium. We present herein the study of an oligopeptide antibiotic distamycin, which binds to the minor groove of B-DNA. Chromatin mobility assays and circular dichroism spectroscopy have been employed to study the effect of distamycin on chromatosomes, isolated from the liver of Sprague-Dawley rats. Our results show that distamycin is capable of remodeling both chromatosomes and reconstituted nucleosomes, and the remodeling takes place in an ATP-independent manner. Binding of distamycin to the linker and nucleosomal DNA culminates in eviction of the linker histone and the formation of a population of off-centered nucleosomes. This hints at a possible corkscrew type motion of the DNA with respect to the histone octamer. Our results indicate that distamycin in spite of remodeling chromatin, inhibits transcription from both DNA and chromatin templates. Therefore, the DNA that is made accessible due to remodeling is either structurally incompetent for transcription, or bound distamycin poses a roadblock for the transcription machinery to advance.
    PLoS ONE 02/2013; 8(2):e57693. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0057693 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract DNA intercalating and minor groove binding compounds are new weapons in the battle against malignant diseases. These antineoplastic agents target the DNA molecule and interfere with the cell cycle leading to rapidly proliferating cell death. They are mainly derivates of a naturally occurring organic compound derived from a microorganism or plant. Intercalators usually act as topoisomerase I and/or II poisons, while the mechanisms of DNA minor groove binders are a combination of several steps including topoisomerase poisoning. This paper gives an overview of some of the developed DNA intercalating and minor groove binding compounds, as well as an explanation of their chemical structures, origins, and application in chemotherapy.
    Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 12/2013; 64(4):593-602. DOI:10.2478/10004-1254-64-2013-2371 · 0.73 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The molecular mechanism for the displacement of HMGA1 proteins from DNA is integral to disrupting their cellular function, which is linked to many metastatic cancers. Chemical shift and NOESY NMR experiments provide structural evidence for the displacement of an AT hook peptide (DNA binding motif of HMGA1 proteins) by both monomeric and dimeric distamycin. However, the displaced AT hook alters distamycin binding by weakening the distamycin:DNA complex, while slowing monomeric distamycin dissociation when AT hook is in excess. The central role of the AT hook was evaluated by monitoring full-length HMGA1a protein binding using fluorescence anisotropy. HMGA1a was effectively displaced by distamycin, but the cooperative binding exhibited by distamycin was eliminated by displaced HMGA1a. Additionally, these studies indicate that HMGA1a is displaced from the DNA by 1 equiv of distamycin, suggesting the ability to develop therapeutics that take advantage of the positively cooperative nature of HMGA1a binding.
    Biochemistry 08/2011; 50(38):8107-16. DOI:10.1021/bi200822c · 3.19 Impact Factor

Preview (3 Sources)

Download
0 Downloads
Available from