Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) inhibits migration and invasion of human gastric cancer AGS cells via suppressing ERK signal pathways

Department of Nursing, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan.
Human & Experimental Toxicology (Impact Factor: 1.75). 05/2010; 30(4):296-306. DOI: 10.1177/0960327110371991
Source: PubMed


Metastasis suppressors and associated other regulators of cell motility play a critical initial role in tumor invasion and metastases. Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is a hydrolysis compound of glucotropaeolin in dietary cruciferous vegetables. BITC has been found to exhibit prevention of cancers in laboratory animals and might also be chemoprotective in humans. Here, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of BITC on cell proliferation, migration, invasion and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways of AGS human gastric cancer cells. Wound healing and Boyden chamber (migration and invasion) assays demonstrated that BITC exhibited an inhibitory effect on the abilities of migration and invasion in AGS cancer cells. BITC suppressed cell migration and invasion of AGS cells in a dose-dependent manner. Results from Western blotting indicated that BITC exerted an inhibitory effect on the ERK1/2, Ras, GRB2, Rho A, iNOS, COX-2 for causing the inhibitions of MMP-2, -7 and -9 then followed by the inhibitions of invasion and migration of AGS cells in vitro. BITC also promoted MKK7, MEKK3, c-jun, JNK1/2, VEGF, Sos1, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), PKC, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) p65 in AGS cells. Results from real-time polymerized chain reaction (PCR) showed that BITC inhibited the gene expressions of MMP-2,-7 -9, FAK, ROCK1 and RhoA after BITC treatment for 24 and 48 hours in AGS cells. Taken together, the finding may provide new mechanisms and functions of BITC, which inhibit migration and invasion of human gastric cancer AGS cells.

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    • "PEITC induces apoptosis in human colon cancer HT-29 cells [17], prostate cancer cells [18], and osteogenic sarcoma U-2 OS cells [19]. Recently, in our laboratory, we also found that PEITC inhibits cell migration and invasion of colon cancer HT-29 cells [20] and human gastric cancer AGS cells [21]. However, there is no report to show that PEITC induced cytotoxic effects in human oral cancer cells. "
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    ABSTRACT: Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), an effective anticancer and chemopreventive agent, has been reported to inhibit cancer cell growth through cell-cycle arrest and induction of apoptotic events in various human cancer cells models. However, whether PEITC inhibits human oral squamous cell carcinoma HSC-3 cell growth and its underlying mechanisms is still not well elucidated. In the present study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of PEITC in HSC-3 cells and examined PEITC-modulated cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. The contrast-phase and flow cytometric assays were used for examining cell morphological changes and viability, respectively. The changes of cell-cycle and apoptosis-associated protein levels were determined utilizing Western blotting in HSC-3 cells after exposure to PEITC. Our results indicated that PEITC effectively inhibited the HSC-3 cells' growth and caused apoptosis. PEITC induced G(0)/G(1) phase arrest through the effects of associated protein such as p53, p21, p17, CDK2 and cyclin E, and it triggered apoptosis through promotion of Bax and Bid expression and reduction of Bcl-2, leading to decrease the levels of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ(m)), and followed the releases of cytochrome c, AIF and Endo G then for causing apoptosis in HSC-3 cells. These results suggest that PEITC could be an antitumor compound for oral cancer therapy.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 07/2012; 2012(6):718320. DOI:10.1155/2012/718320 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    • "Wu et al. treated L9981 lung cancer cells with sulfur-containing benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), and reported that the motility of BITC and PEITC were decreased to 11.1% and 19.4% (compared to control) after 24 h, of incubation, and to 8.1% and 16.5% after 30 h of incubation, respectively [23]. Ho et al. [24] treated AGS gastric cancer cells with BITC (0, 0.25, or 0.5 µmol/L) in a Boyden chamber motility assay, and reported that tumor cell motility decreased by 42% and 43% for 0.25 and 0.5 µmol/L after 24 h of incubation, respectively, and 37% and 44% after 48 h of incubation, respectively. They concluded that the decrease in tumor motility by organic sulfur was due to a decrease in the ERK signal pathway. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of inorganic sulfur on metastasis in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. MDA-MB-231 cells were cultured in the absence or presence of various concentrations (12.5, 25, or 50 µmol/L) of inorganic sulfur. Cell motility, invasion, and the activity and mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) were examined. Numbers of viable MDA-MB-231 cells did not differ by inorganic sulfur treatment from 0 to 50 µmol/L within 48 h. Inorganic sulfur significantly decreased cell motility and invasion in the MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05), as determined using a Boyden chamber assay and a Matrigel chamber. The activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were significantly reduced by inorganic sulfur in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). The inorganic sulfur also significantly inhibited MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression in the cells (P < 0.05). These data suggest that inorganic sulfur can suppress cancer cell motility and invasion by inhibiting MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity and gene expression in MDA-MB-231 cells.
    Nutrition research and practice 10/2011; 5(5):375-80. DOI:10.4162/nrp.2011.5.5.375 · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Isothiocyanates, occurring in many dietary cruciferous vegetables, show interesting chemopreventive activities against several chronic-degenerative diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegeneration, diabetes. The electrophilic carbon residue in the isothiocyanate moiety reacts with biological nucleophiles and modification of proteins is recognized as a key mechanism underlying the biological activity of isothiocyanates. The nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 system, which orchestrates the expression of a wide array of antioxidant genes, plays a role in the protective effect of isothiocyanates against almost all the pathological conditions reported above. Recent emerging findings suggest a further common mechanism. Chronic inflammation plays a central role in many human diseases and isothiocyanates inhibit the activity of many inflammation components, suppress cyclooxygenase 2, and irreversibly inactivate the macrophage migration inhibitory factor. Due to their electrophilic reactivity, some isothiocyanates are able to form adducts with DNA and induce gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations. DNA damage has been demonstrated to be involved in the pathogenesis of various chronic-degenerative diseases of epidemiological relevance. Thus, the genotoxicity of the isothiocyanates should be carefully considered. In addition, the dose-response relationship for genotoxic compounds does not suggest evidence of a threshold. Thus, chemicals that are genotoxic pose a greater potential risk to humans than non-genotoxic compounds. Dietary consumption levels of isothiocyanates appear to be several orders of magnitude lower than the doses used in the genotoxicity studies and thus it is highly unlikely that such toxicities would occur in humans. However, the beneficial properties of isothiocyanates stimulated an increase of dietary supplements and functional foods with highly enriched isothiocyanate concentrations on the market. Whether such concentrations may exert a potential health risk cannot be excluded with certainty and an accurate evaluation of the toxicological profile of isothiocyanates should be prompted before any major increase in their consumption be recommended or their clinical use suggested.
    Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 12/2011; 750(2):107-31. DOI:10.1016/j.mrrev.2011.12.001 · 3.68 Impact Factor
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