Phase II study of immunomodulation with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-2, and rituximab following autologous stem cell transplant in patients with relapsed or refractory lymphomas.
ABSTRACT High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) leads to durable remissions in approximately half of patients with chemosensitive relapsed or refractory aggressive lymphomas; however, many will relapse despite ASCT secondary to persistent minimal residual disease (MRD) or malignant graft contamination. Post-transplant rituximab may eradicate MRD. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) might enhance the efficacy of rituximab by augmenting antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). We hypothesized that given together, rituximab, GM-CSF, and IL-2 might eradicate MRD and improve event-free survival following ASCT. Forty-six patients with relapsed non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) or Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) were enrolled. Stem cells were mobilized with G-CSF and GM-CSF following chemotherapy. Following BEAM conditioning, patients received GM-CSF until neutrophil engraftment. Between days + 30 and + 120, patients received one dose of rituximab 375 mg/m(2) (cycle 1), followed by three cycles of GM-CSF 250 microg/m(2)/day SQ days 1-5, IL-2 1.5 x 10(6) IU/m(2)/day SQ days 6-12, and rituximab 375 mg/m(2) IV day 9, repeated every 21 days. Thirty-eight patients were eligible for post-ASCT immunotherapy. Nine patients completed 1-2 cycles and 21 completed 3-4 cycles; eight patients did not receive post-ASCT immunotherapy. Grade 3-4 neutropenia and grade 3 thrombocytopenia were observed. With a median follow-up of 30 months, the estimated 5-year OS and EFS for all patients eligible for immunotherapy are 65% and 45%, respectively. Post-ASCT immunomodulation with rituximab, IL-2, and GM-CSF was feasible and safe, but not all patients were able to continue on to post-ASCT immunotherapy.
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ABSTRACT: To determine whether the IL2/IL21 region, a general autoimmunity locus, contributes to the observed variation in response to rituximab in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus as well as to analyze its influence in a cohort including other autoimmune diseases. rs6822844 G/T polymorphism at the IL2-IL21 region was analyzed by TaqMan assay in 84 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and 60 different systemic autoimmune diseases Spanish patients receiving rituximab. Six months after the first infusion patients were classified, according to the EULAR criteria, as good responders, partial responders and non-responders. A statistically significant difference was observed in GG genotype frequency between responder (total and partial response) (83.56 %) and non-responder (45.45 %) SLE patients (p = 0.010, odds ratio (OR) = 6.10 [1.28-29.06]). No association with the response was evident in the group of patients with autoimmune diseases other than lupus. Furthermore, when both groups of patients were pooled in a meta-analysis, a reduced statistical significance of the association was observed (p = 0.024, OR = 3.53 [1.06-11.64]). Our results show for a first time that IL2-IL21 region seems to play a role in the response to rituximab in SLE patients but not in other autoimmune diseases.Molecular Biology Reports 05/2013; 40(8). DOI:10.1007/s11033-013-2583-6 · 1.96 Impact Factor
Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases Supplements 01/2011; 3(1):43-43. DOI:10.1016/S1878-6480(11)70136-7
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ABSTRACT: The elderly population is susceptible to haematological malignancies, and these elderly patients are intolerant to cytotoxic drugs. Therefore, the exploration of a safe and reliable strategy exclusive of chemotherapy is critical in improving the prognosis of elderly patients with haematological malignancies. We evaluated the safety and the efficacy of autologous cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells combined with recombinant human interleukin 2 (rhIL-2) in the treatment of haematological malignancies in elderly patients. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from 20 elderly patients with haematological malignancies, then augmented by priming with interferon gamma, rhIL-2 and CD3 monoclonal antibody. The autologous CIK cells (2-3 × 10(9) ) were transfused back to patients, followed by a subcutaneous injection of IL-2 (1 mU/day) for 10 consecutive days. The regimen was repeated every 4 weeks. The host cellular immune function, tumour-related biological parameters, imaging characteristics, disease condition, quality of life and survival time were assessed. Fourteen patients received 8 cycles of transfusion and 6 received 4 cycles. No adverse effects were observed. The percentages of CD3(+) , CD3(+) CD8(+) and CD3(+) CD56(+) cells were significantly increased (p < 0.05), and the levels of serum β2 microglobulin and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were markedly decreased (p < 0.05) after autologous CIK cell transfusion. Cancer-related symptoms were profoundly alleviated, as demonstrated by the improved quality of life (p < 0.01). Complete remission was observed in 11 patients, persistent partial remission in 7 patients and stable disease in 2 patients. At the end of follow-up, the mean survival time was 20 months. Transfusion with autologous CIK cells plus rhIL-2 treatment is safe and effective for treating haematological malignancies in elderly patients. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Hematological Oncology 09/2012; 30(3):115-22. DOI:10.1002/hon.1012 · 2.36 Impact Factor