Trichome specific expression of the tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris) cembratrien-ol synthase genes is controlled by both activating and repressing cis-regions.
ABSTRACT Tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris) glandular trichomes make an attractive target for isoprenoid metabolic engineering because they produce large amounts of one type of diterpenoids, alpha- and beta-cembratrien-diols. This article describes the establishment of tools for metabolic engineering of tobacco trichomes, namely a transgenic line with strongly reduced levels of diterpenoids in the exudate and the characterization of a trichome specific promoter. The diterpene-free tobacco line was generated by silencing the major tobacco diterpene synthases, which were found to be encoded by a family of four highly similar genes (NsCBTS-2a, NsCBTS-2b, NsCBTS-3 and NsCBTS-4), one of which is a pseudogene. The promoter regions of all four CBTS genes were sequenced and found to share over 95% identity between them. Transgenic plants expressing uidA under the control of the NsCBTS-2a promoter displayed a specific pattern of GUS expression restricted exclusively to the glandular cells of the tall secretory trichomes. A series of sequential and internal deletions of the NsCBTS-2a promoter led to the identification of two cis-acting regions. The first, located between positions -589 to -479 from the transcription initiation site, conferred a broad transcriptional activation, not only in the glandular cells, but also in cells of the trichome stalk, as well as in the leaf epidermis and the root. The second region, located between positions -279 to -119, had broad repressor activity except in trichome glandular cells and is mainly responsible for the specific expression pattern of the NsCBTS-2a gene. These results establish the basis for the identification of trans-regulators required for the expression of the CBTS genes restricted to the secretory cells of the glandular trichomes.
- SourceAvailable from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Constitutive and induced terpenoids are important defense compounds for many plants against potential herbivores and pathogens. In Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst), treatment with methyl jasmonate induces complex chemical and biochemical terpenoid defense responses associated with traumatic resin duct development in stems and volatile terpenoid emissions in needles. The cloning of (+)-3-carene synthase was the first step in characterizing this system at the molecular genetic level. Here we report the isolation and functional characterization of nine additional terpene synthase (TPS) cDNAs from Norway spruce. These cDNAs encode four monoterpene synthases, myrcene synthase, (-)-limonene synthase, (-)-alpha/beta-pinene synthase, and (-)-linalool synthase; three sesquiterpene synthases, longifolene synthase, E,E-alpha-farnesene synthase, and E-alpha-bisabolene synthase; and two diterpene synthases, isopimara-7,15-diene synthase and levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase, each with a unique product profile. To our knowledge, genes encoding isopimara-7,15-diene synthase and longifolene synthase have not been previously described, and this linalool synthase is the first described from a gymnosperm. These functionally diverse TPS account for much of the structural diversity of constitutive and methyl jasmonate-induced terpenoids in foliage, xylem, bark, and volatile emissions from needles of Norway spruce. Phylogenetic analyses based on the inclusion of these TPS into the TPS-d subfamily revealed that functional specialization of conifer TPS occurred before speciation of Pinaceae. Furthermore, based on TPS enclaves created by distinct branching patterns, the TPS-d subfamily is divided into three groups according to sequence similarities and functional assessment. Similarities of TPS evolution in angiosperms and modeling of TPS protein structures are discussed.Plant physiology 09/2004; 135(4):1908-27. · 6.56 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The 5' fragment (1 647 bp) of the cotton glucuronosyltransferase gene (GhGlcAT1) was transcriptionally fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene, and functionally analyzed for important regulatory regions controlling gene expression in transgenic tobacco plants. GUS activity analysis revealed that the full-length promoter drives efficient expression of the GUS gene in the root cap, seed coat, pollen grains and trichomes. Exposure of the transgenic tobacco to various abiotic stresses showed that the promoter was mainly responsive to the sugars (glucose and sucrose) as well as gibberellic acid. Progressive upstream deletion analyses of the promoter showed that the region from -281 to +30 bp is sufficient to drive strong GUS expression in the trichomes of shoot, suggesting that the 311 bp region contains all cis-elements needed for trichome-specific expression. Furthermore, deletion analysis also revealed that the essential cis-element(s) for sucrose induction might be located between -635 and -281 bp. In addition, sequence analysis of the regulatory region indicated several conserved motifs among which some were shared with previously reported seed-specific elements and sugar-responsive elements, while others were related with trichome expression. These findings indicate that a 1 647-bp fragment of the cotton GhGlcAT1 promoter contains specific transcription regulatory elements, and provide clues about the roles of GhGlcAT1 in cotton fiber development. Further analyses of these elements will help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms regulating the expression of the GhGlcAT1 gene during fiber elongation.Cell Research 03/2007; 17(2):174-83. · 10.53 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Monoterpenes, the C(10) isoprenoids, are a large family of natural products that are best known as constituents of the essential oils and defensive oleoresins of aromatic plants. In addition to ecological roles in pollinator attraction, allelopathy and plant defense, monoterpenes are used extensively in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The importance of these plant products has prompted the definition of many monoterpene biosynthetic pathways, the cloning of the relevant genes and the development of genetic transformation techniques for agronomically significant monoterpene-producing plants. Metabolic engineering of monoterpene biosynthesis in the model plant peppermint has resulted in yield increase and compositional improvement of the essential oil, and also provided strategies for manipulating flavor and fragrance production, and plant defense.Trends in Plant Science 09/2002; 7(8):366-73. · 11.81 Impact Factor