(R)-N-Methyl-3-(3'-[F]fluoropropyl)phenoxy)-3-phenylpropanamine (F-MFP3) as a potential PET imaging agent for norepinephrine transporter.
ABSTRACT A decline of norepinephrine transporter (NET) level is associated with several psychiatric and neurological disorders. Therefore positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents are greatly desired to study the NET pathway. We have developed a C-fluoropropyl analog of nisoxetine: (R)-N-methyl-3-(3'-[(18)F]fluoropropyl)phenoxy)-3-phenylpropanamine ((18)F-MFP3) as a new potential PET radiotracer for NET with the advantage of the longer half-life of fluorine-18 (110 min compared with carbon-11 (20 min). Synthesis of (R)-N-methyl-3-(3'-fluoropropyl)phenoxy)-3-phenylpropanamine (MFP3) was achieved in five steps starting from (S)-N-methyl-3-ol-3-phenylpropanamine in approx. 3-5% overall yields. In vitro binding affinity of nisoxetine and MFP3 in rat brain homogenates labeled with (3)H-nisoxetine gave Ki values of 8.02 nM and 23 nM, respectively. For radiosynthesis of (18)F-MFP3, fluorine-18 was incorporated into a tosylate precursor, followed by the deprotection of the N-BOC-protected amine group with a 15% decay corrected yield in 2.5 h. Reverse-phase chromatographic purification provided (18)F-MFP3 in specific activities of >2000 Ci/mmol. Fluorine-18 labeled (18)F-MFP3 has been produced in modest radiochemical yields and in high specific activities. Evaluation of (18)F-MFP3 in animal imaging studies is in progress in order to validate this new fluorine-18 radiotracer for PET imaging of NET.
Article: Evaluation of radioiodinated (R)-N-methyl-3-(2-iodophenoxy)-3-phenylpropanamine as a ligand for brain norepinephrine transporter imaging.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: (R)-N-methyl-3-(2-iodophenoxy)-3-phenylpropanamine (MIPP) was evaluated as a radiopharmaceutical for investigating brain norepinephrine transporters (NET) by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). (R)-[(125)I]MIPP was synthesized with high radiochemical yield (60%) and high radiochemical purity (> 98%). In biodistribution experiments, (R)-[(125)I]MIPP indicated that the brain uptake of (R)-[(125)I]MIPP was rapid and retained, and that the regional cerebral distribution was consistent with the density of NET. Moreover, the administration of desipramine decreased the accumulation of (R)-[(125)I]MIPP in the brain. HPLC analysis of brain radioactivity showed that more than 90% was intact (R)-MIPP. These results suggested that (R)-[(123)I]MIPP is a potential radiopharmaceutical for imaging brain NET.Nuclear Medicine and Biology 03/2004; 31(2):147-53. · 3.02 Impact Factor
Article: Norepinephrine transporter sites are decreased in the locus coeruleus in Alzheimer's disease.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The present study determined whether [3H]nisoxetine binding to norepinephrine transporter sites would be altered uniformly throughout the locus coeruleus in Alzheimer's disease. A significant decrease (P < 0.01) in [3H]nisoxetine binding was seen in the mid and caudal regions but not in the rostral region of the locus coeruleus. The loss of [3H]nisoxetine binding to norepinephrine transporter sites may be attributed to a loss of norepinephrine transporter sites located on terminals of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus in Alzheimer's disease.Brain Research 12/1993; 631(1):147-50. · 2.73 Impact Factor
Article: Nicotinic alpha4beta2 receptor imaging agents: part II. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 2-[18F]fluoro-3-[2-((S)-3-pyrrolinyl)methoxy]pyridine (18F-nifene) in rodents and imaging by PET in nonhuman primate.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) has been implicated in various neurodegenerative diseases. Optimal positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents are therefore highly desired for this receptor. We report here the development and initial evaluation of 2-fluoro-3-[2-((S)-3-pyrrolinyl)methoxy]pyridine (nifene). In vitro binding affinity of nifene in rat brain homogenate using 3H-cytisine exhibited a K(i) = 0.50 nM for the alpha4beta2 sites. The radiosynthesis of 2-18F-fluoro-3-[2-((S)-3-pyrrolinyl)methoxy]pyridine (18F-nifene) was accomplished in 2.5 h with an overall radiochemical yield of 40-50%, decay corrected. The specific activity was estimated to be approx. 37-185 GBq/micromol. In vitro autoradiography in rat brain slices indicated selective binding of 18F-nifene to anteroventral thalamic (AVT) nucleus, thalamus, subiculum, striata, cortex and other regions consistent with alpha4beta2 receptor distribution. Rat cerebellum showed some binding, whereas regions in the hippocampus had the lowest binding. The highest ratio of >13 between AVT and cerebellum was measured for 18F-nifene in rat brain slices. The specific binding was reduced (>95%) by 300 microM nicotine in these brain regions. Positron emission tomography imaging study of 18F-nifene (130 MBq) in anesthetized rhesus monkey was carried out using an ECAT EXACT HR+ scanner. PET study showed selective maximal uptake in the regions of the anterior medial thalamus, ventro-lateral thalamus, lateral geniculate, cingulate gyrus, temporal cortex including the subiculum. The cerebellum in the monkeys showed lower binding than the other regions. Thalamus-to-cerebellum ratio peaked at 30-35 min postinjection to a value of 2.2 and subsequently reduced. The faster binding profile of 18F-nifene indicates promise as a PET imaging agent and thus needs further evaluation.Nuclear Medicine and Biology 04/2006; 33(3):295-304. · 3.02 Impact Factor