Parahippocampal corpora amylacea: case report.
ABSTRACT Corpora amylacea (CA) normally accumulate within perivascular, subpial, and subependymal astrocytic processes. CA are associated with a number of conditions including normal aging, hippocampal sclerosis associated with temporal lobe epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, Lafora-type progressive myoclonic epilepsy, and adult polyglucosan body disease. Reports of massive localized accumulation of CA in the brain outside of these conditions are rare.
A 49-year-old woman, with a long-standing history of migraine headaches, presented to her primary care provider for increased headache duration. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a left parahippocampal lesion, suggestive of low-grade glioma.
Given the MRI suggestive of left parahippocampal glioma, left-sided frontotemporal craniotomy was performed for resection of the lesion. Specimens obtained during the operation revealed focal high-density accumulation of CA with no evidence of neoplasm, ischemia, or hypoxic injury.
This case illustrates the possibility that localized high-density CA accumulation can present as an intrinsic lesion on brain MRI. CA should be included in the differential diagnosis for patients presenting with brain MRI suggestive of nonenhancing space-occupying lesions.
- Central European Journal of Medicine 08/2013; · 0.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Glycogen storage disease type IV (GSD IV) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the glycogen branching enzyme (GBE). The diagnostic feature of the disease is the accumulation of a poorly branched form of glycogen known as polyglucosan (PG). The disease is clinically heterogeneous, with variable tissue involvement and age of disease onset. Absence of enzyme activity is lethal in utero or in infancy affecting primarily muscle and liver. However, residual enzyme activity (5-20%) leads to juvenile or adult onset of a disorder that primarily affects muscle as well as central and peripheral nervous system. Here, we describe two mouse models of GSD IV that reflect this spectrum of disease. Homologous recombination was used to insert flippase recognition target recombination sites around exon 7 of the Gbe1 gene and a phosphoglycerate kinase-Neomycin cassette within intron 7, leading to a reduced synthesis of GBE. Mice bearing this mutation (Gbe1(neo/neo)) exhibit a phenotype similar to juvenile onset GSD IV, with wide spread accumulation of PG. Meanwhile, FLPe-mediated homozygous deletion of exon 7 completely eliminated GBE activity (Gbe1(-/-)), leading to a phenotype of lethal early onset GSD IV, with significant in utero accumulation of PG. Adult mice with residual GBE exhibit progressive neuromuscular dysfunction and die prematurely. Differently from muscle, PG in liver is a degradable source of glucose and readily depleted by fasting, emphasizing that there are structural and regulatory differences in glycogen metabolism among tissues. Both mouse models recapitulate typical histological and physiological features of two human variants of branching enzyme deficiency.Human Molecular Genetics 08/2011; 20(22):4430-9. · 6.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Epilepsy is a family of brain disorders with a largely unknown etiology and high percentage of pharmacoresistance. The clinical manifestations of epilepsy are seizures, which originate from aberrant neuronal synchronization and hyperexcitability. Reactive astrocytosis, a hallmark of the epileptic tissue, develops into loss-of-function of glutamine synthetase, impairment of glutamate-glutamine cycle and increase in extracellular and astrocytic glutamate concentration. Here, we argue that chronically elevated intracellular glutamate level in astrocytes is instrumental to alterations in the metabolism of glycogen and leads to the synthesis of polyglucosans. Unaccessibility of glycogen-degrading enzymes to these insoluble molecules compromises the glycogenolysis-dependent reuptake of extracellular K(+) by astrocytes, thereby leading to increased extracellular K(+) and associated membrane depolarization. Based on current knowledge, we propose that the deterioration in structural homogeneity of glycogen particles is relevant to disruption of brain K(+) homeostasis and increased susceptibility to seizures in epilepsy.Metabolic Brain Disease 03/2014; · 2.40 Impact Factor