Associations between cardiac pathology and clinical, echocardiographic and electrocardiographic findings in dogs with chronic congestive heart failure
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to correlate defined pathological features with clinical findings in dogs with naturally occurring congestive heart failure (CHF). Fifty-eight dogs with CHF were examined clinically and using echocardiography and electrocardiography. Detailed cardiac post-mortem examination was used to assess intra-myocardial arterial narrowing, myocardial fibrosis and atrophy and myxomatous mitral valve degeneration (MMVD). Arterial narrowing significantly correlated with fibrosis (P<0.0001) and with fractional shortening, an indicator of systolic function (P=0.002). The grade of fibrosis was associated with shorter survival time (P=0.002), and the papillary muscle fibrosis score tended to correlate with proximal isovelocity surface area radius (P=0.03). Data from this study lend support to the hypothesis that naturally occurring canine CHF is affected by several factors such as MMVD, myocardial atrophy and fibrosis, and by arteriosclerosis. Further, more extensive research will be required to establish cause-effect relationships between these cardiac lesions and the pathophysiology of CHF in dogs.
- The Veterinary Journal 07/2010; 185(1):1-3. DOI:10.1016/j.tvjl.2010.04.003 · 1.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Autonomic modulation of heart rhythm is thought to influence the pathophysiology of myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). (1) Holter-derived variables reflecting autonomic modulation of heart rhythm change with MMVD severity in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCS); (2) Holter-derived variables can identify MMVD severity in CKCS; and (3) Holter-derived variables in CKCS in congestive heart failure (CHF) secondary to MMVD differ from those in dogs of other breeds in CHF. Ninety privately owned dogs: 70 CKCS with variable MMVD severity and 20 non-CKCS in CHF secondary to MMVD. Dogs were prospectively recruited and divided into 5 MMVD severity groups based on history, breed, and physical and echocardiographic examination findings. Holter-derived variables included heart rate variability (HRV), heart rate (HR), and arrhythmia evaluated from 24-hour Holter recordings. In CKCS, 18 of 26 HRV (all P < .0002) and 3 of 9 arrhythmia (all P < .0004) variables decreased with increasing MMVD, whereas minimum and mean HR (all P < .0001) increased with increasing MMVD severity. An arrhythmia variable representing sinus arrhythmia ("premature normals") (P < .0001) and the HRV variable triangular index (TI) (P < .0001) could distinguish CKCS with moderate or severe mitral regurgitation from CKCS in CHF in specific intervals. Among dogs in CHF, Holter-derived variables did not differ among breeds. In CKCS, Holter-derived variables changed with MMVD severity. "Premature normals" and TI showed diagnostic potential. Breed differences were not seen among dogs in CHF secondary to MMVD.Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 12/2011; 26(1):76-84. DOI:10.1111/j.1939-1676.2011.00842.x · 1.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective-To assess relationships among serum N-terminal procollagen type III concentration, urinary aldosterone-to-creatinine concentration ratio (UAC), and clinical variables in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) and healthy dogs. Animals-162 dogs with MMVD and 24 healthy control dogs of comparable age and body weight. Procedures-Blood and urine samples were collected from each dog. Dogs with MMVD underwent echocardiography and ECG. Ventricular diameter measurements were normalized for body weight. Serum N-terminal procollagen type III and urinary aldosterone concentrations were measured via radioimmunoassay. Each dog was examined on 1 to 3 occasions. Examinations were repeated at approximately 6-month intervals. Results-Serum N-terminal procollagen type III concentration decreased with increasing severity of MMVD and was negatively associated with age and left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic diameters. The UAC increased with prior percentage change in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter per month, subsequent percentage change in left ventricular end-systolic diameter per month, and treatment with diuretics and was negatively associated with age. Both UAC and serum N-terminal procollagen type III concentration were higher in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels than in other breeds when other measured variables were controlled for. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-In dogs with MMVD, echocardiographic indicators of left ventricular remodeling appeared to be associated with a decrease in serum concentration of a marker of collagen type III turnover and an increase in urinary aldosterone concentration.American Journal of Veterinary Research 11/2012; 73(11):1765-74. DOI:10.2460/ajvr.73.11.1765 · 1.34 Impact Factor