Microencapsulation to reduce mechanical loss of microspheres: Implications in myocardial cell therapy
ABSTRACT Previous regenerative studies have demonstrated massive cell losses after intramyocardial cellular delivery. Therefore, efforts at reducing mechanical losses may prove more successful in optimising cellular therapy. In this study, we hypothesized that escalating mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) dose will not produce corresponding improvement in cardiac function due to washout of the small cells in microcirculation. Using microspheres similar in size to MSCs, that are encapsulated in alginate-poly-l-lysine-alginate (APA), we tested the hypothesis that size is an important factor in early losses.
In experiment I, five groups of rats (n=9 each) underwent coronary ligation; group I had no treatment; the other groups received escalating 0.5 × 10(6), 1.5 × 10(6), 3 × 10(6) and 5 × 10(6) of MSCs each. Echocardiogram was performed at baseline, 2 days and 7 weeks after surgery. In experiment II, cell-sized microspheres (10 μm) were encapsulated in APA microcapsules. In group I (n=16), rats received bare microspheres, group II (n=16) microspheres within 200 μm microcapsules and in group III (n=16), microspheres within 400 μm microcapsules. After 20 min, hearts were quantified for the amount retained.
Myocardial function did not improve further with escalating cell doses beyond an initial response at 1.5 × 10(6) cells. Encapsulated microspheres in 200 μm and 400 μm microcapsules demonstrated a fourfold increase in retention rate compared with 10 μm microspheres.
We concluded that suboptimal functional improvement in this animal model starts at 1.5 × 10(6) cells and does not respond to escalating cell doses. Improving mechanical retention is possible by increasing the size of the injectate. Microencapsulation could be used to encapsulate donor cells and facilitate functional improvement in cellular heart failure therapy.
- SourceAvailable from: Jean-Pierre Karam
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
- "Recently, the importance of scaffold size for intra-myocardial injection has been reported for scaffold/cell complex retention in the beating heart . For instance, augmenting from 10 mm to 400 mm the size of alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate microspheres encapsulating MSCs, a fourfold increase in cell retention rate was observed . Hydrogels with an in situ gelling process have also been extensively studied these last years due to the possibility of a direct injection in the ischemic area using a catheter/ needle  . "
ABSTRACT: An increasing number of studies in cardiac cell therapy have provided encouraging results for cardiac repair. Adult stem cells may overcome ethical and availability concerns, with the additional advantages, in some cases, to allow autologous grafts to be performed. However, the major problems of cell survival, cell fate determination and engraftment after transplantation, still remain. Tissue-engineering strategies combining scaffolds and cells have been developed and have to be adapted for each type of application to enhance stem cell function. Scaffold properties required for cardiac cell therapy are here discussed. New tissue engineering advances that may be implemented in combination with adult stem cells for myocardial infarction therapy are also presented. Biomaterials not only provide a 3D support for the cells but may also mimic the structural architecture of the heart. Using hydrogels or particulate systems, the biophysical and biochemical microenvironments of transplanted cells can also be controlled. Advances in biomaterial engineering have permitted the development of sophisticated drug-releasing materials with a biomimetic 3D support that allow a better control of the microenvironment of transplanted cells.Biomaterials 05/2012; 33(23):5683-95. DOI:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2012.04.028 · 8.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
- "LVFS for group I reached 16.5% at 8 weeks post-MI. This result is comparable to the authors’ previous study that examined LVFS for a control group that received only culture medium at 7 weeks.7 This comparison proves that the nanoparticles used had no negative effect on the heart. "
ABSTRACT: Acute myocardial ischemia results in scar formation with ventricular dilatation and eventually heart failure. Placental growth factor (PlGF) is reported to stimulate angiogenesis and improve cardiac function. In this study, it was hypothesized that intramyocardial injection of PlGF contained in nanoparticles can be released at the site of action for an extended time period as a sustained slow-release protective mechanism that accelerates myocardial recovery in a rat model of ischemic cardiomyopathy. PlGF-loaded chitosan-alginate nanoparticles were injected into an acute myocardial infarction model in rats (n = 10 per group). Transthoracic echocardiography was performed at different time intervals. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the serum cytokines levels at 8 weeks. Hearts were stained with Masson's trichrome for scar area analysis. Immunofluorostaining was performed to evaluate the extent of myocardial angiogenesis at the infarction border. PlGF enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the in vitro release kinetics of PlGF-loaded nanoparticles. At 8 weeks after coronary ligation, hearts that were treated with PlGF-loaded chitosan-alginate nanoparticles had significant increases in left-ventricular function (P < 0.01), vascular density (P < 0.01), and in the serum level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (P < 0.05). There was significant decrease in scar area formation (P < 0.05) and in serum levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 (P < 0.01). In vitro PlGF-release kinetic studies showed a sustained release of PlGF from the particles over a 120-hour period. The use of nanoparticles as a vehicle for PlGF delivery, as opposed to the direct injection of the growth factor after acute myocardial infarction, can provide sustained slow-release PlGF therapy, enhancing the positive effects of the growth factor in the setting of acute myocardial ischemia.International Journal of Nanomedicine 10/2011; 6:2667-78. DOI:10.2147/IJN.S25175 · 4.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
- "Cardiac cell transplantation is limited mainly due to poor graft viability . Our recent findings on animal studies have demonstrated that microencapsulated cell delivery system can increase the transplanted cell retention capacity by four times in comparison to free cells when injected intramyocardially in a beating heart [16, 54, 55]. To further reduce the biological and mechanical loss of the transplanted cardiomyocytes in the harsh contractile myocardial environment, we modified the alginate microcapsules by incorporating PEG. "
ABSTRACT: The potential of genetically modified cardiomyoblasts in treating damaged myocardium is well known. However, efficient delivery of these cells is of major concern during treatment. The limiting factors are the massive cell death that occurs soon after their intramyocardial transplantation into the beating heart. To address these problems, we generated recombinant baculoviruses (BacMam viruses) which efficiently transduced cardiomyoblast cells under optimized conditions. These genetically modified cells were then protected in a new polymeric microcapsule using poly-ethylene-glycol (PEG), alginate, and poly-L-lysine (PLL) polymers for efficient delivery. Results showed that microcapsules maintain cell viability and support cell proliferation for at least 30 days. The capsules exhibit strong immunoprotective potential and have high mechanical and osmotic stability with more than 70% intact capsules. The encased transduced cells showed a rapid transgene expression inside the capsule for at least 15 days. However, preclinical studies are needed to further explore its long-term functional benefits.BioMed Research International 01/2010; 2010:858094. DOI:10.1155/2010/858094 · 2.71 Impact Factor