Infant exposure of perfluorinated compounds: Levels in breast milk and commercial baby food

Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona, Spain.
Environment international (Impact Factor: 5.56). 08/2010; 36(6):584-92. DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2010.04.016
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In this study, an analytical method to determine six perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) based on alkaline digestion and solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography-quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-QqLIT-MS) was validated for the analysis of human breast milk, milk infant formulas and cereals baby food. The average recoveries of the different matrices were in general higher than 70% with a relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than 21% and method limits of detection (MLOD) ranging from 1.2 to 362 ng/L for the different compounds and matrices. The method was applied to investigate the occurrence of PFCs in 20 samples of human breast milk, and 5 samples of infant formulas and cereal baby food (3 brands of commercial milk infant formulas and 2 brands of cereals baby food). Breast milk samples were collected in 2008 from donors living in Barcelona city (Spain) on the 40 days postpartum. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoro-7-methyloctanoic acid (i,p-PFNA) were predominant being present in the 95% of breast milk samples. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was quantified in 8 of the 20 breast milk samples at concentrations in the range of 21-907 ng/L. Commercial formulas and food were purchased also in 2009 from a retail store. The six PFCs were detected in all brands of milk infant formulas and cereals baby food analyzed, being perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), PFOS, PFOA and i,p-PFNA the compounds detected in higher concentrations (up to 1289 ng/kg). PFCs presence can be associated to possible migration from packaging and containers during production processes. Finally, based on estimated body weight and newborn intake, PFOS and PFOA daily intakes and risk indexes (RI) were estimated for the firsts 6 month of life. We found that ingestion rates of PFOS and PFOA, with exception of one breast milk sample did not exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) recommended by the EFSA. However, more research is needed in order to assess possible risk associated to PFCs contamination during early stages of life.

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    • "The unique properties such as resistance to hydrolysis, photolysis, bio-degradation and thermal stability, in combination with widespread application of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), made them global pollutants in abiotic and biotic matrices including food stuffs (Picó et al., 2011), human blood (Kannan et al., 2004; Harada et al., 2010), breast milk (Llorca et al., 2010), wildlife such as fish, birds and marine mammals (Giesy and Kannan, 2001), sediment (Nakata et al., 2006), water (Yamashita et al., 2005) and atmosphere (Li et al., 2011). The worldwide distribution of PFASs was reported in urban and remote areas including Science of the Total Environment xxx (2014) xxx–xxx deep oceanic water of up to 5000 m (Yamashita et al., 2005) and in polar bears from the Arctic Ocean (Giesy and Kannan, 2001). "
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    ABSTRACT: Water, sediment, plankton, and blood and liver tissues of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) and mandarin fish (Siniperca scherzeri) were collected from six major rivers and lakes in South Korea (including Namhan River, Bukhan River, Nakdong River, Nam River, Yeongsan River and Sangsa Lake) and analyzed for perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs). Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was consistently detected at the greatest concentrations in all media surveyed with the maximum concentration in water of 15ngL(-1) and in biota of 234ngmL(-1) (fish blood). A general ascending order of PFAS concentration of water<sediment<plankton<crucian carp tissues<mandarin fish tissues was found. Except for the Nakdong River and Yeongsan River, the sum PFAS concentrations in water samples were below 10ngL(-1). The PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentrations in water did not exceed levels for acute and/or chronic effects in aquatic organisms. High concentrations of long chain perfluorocarboxylates (LCPFCAs) were found in sediment samples. PFOS, perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) accounted for 94-99% of the total PFASs concentration in fish tissues. The mean ratios of PFAS concentration between fish blood and fish liver were above 2 suggesting higher levels in blood than in liver. Significant positive correlations (r>0.80, p<0.001) were observed between PFOS concentration in blood and liver tissues of both crucian carp and mandarin fish. This result suggests that blood can be used for nonlethal monitoring of PFOS in fish. Overall, the rank order of mean bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of PFOS in biota was; phytoplankton (196L/kg)<zooplankton (3233L/kg)<crucian carp liver (4567L/kg)<crucian carp blood (11,167L/kg)<mandarin liver (24,718L/kg)<mandarin blood (73,612L/kg).
    Science of The Total Environment 02/2014; 491. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.01.045 · 4.10 Impact Factor
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    • "Major exposure pathways for children may also include dust and soil ingestion, placental transfer, and breast-feeding (Fromme et al. 2009; Hanssen et al. 2010; Kärrman et al. 2007; Monroy et al. 2008; Zhang et al. 2010a). PFCs have been detected in infant, child, and adult blood or serum samples and in adult liver and breast milk (Frisbee et al. 2009; Kärrman et al. 2010; Liu et al. 2010; Llorca et al. 2010; Tao et al. 2008a, 2008b; Zhang et al. 2010b). Serum concentrations of some PFCs, such as PFOA, have been associated with age, sex, and race (Calafat et al. 2007a, 2007b; Steenland et al. 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: For > 50 years, polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) have been used worldwide, mainly as surfactants and emulsifiers, and human exposure to some PFCs is widespread. Our goal was to report PFC serum concentrations from a convenience sample of Dallas, Texas, children from birth to < 13 years of age, and to examine age and sex differences in PFC concentrations. We analyzed 300 serum samples collected in 2009 for eight PFCs by online solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution-tandem mass spectrometry. Perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were detected in > 92% of participants; the other PFCs measured were detected less frequently. Overall median concentrations of PFOS (4.1 ng/mL) were higher than those for PFOA (2.85 ng/mL), PFNA (1.2 ng/mL), and PFHxS (1.2 ng/mL). For PFOS, PFOA, PFNA, and PFHxS, we found no significant differences (p < 0.05) by sex, significantly increasing concentrations for all four chemicals by age, and significantly positive correlations between all four compounds. We found no significant differences in the serum concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, PFNA, and PFHxS by sex, but increasing concentrations with age. Our results suggest that these 300 Texas children from birth through 12 years of age continued to be exposed to several PFCs in late 2009, years after changes in production of some PFCs in the United States.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 12/2011; 120(4):590-4. DOI:10.1289/ehp.1104325 · 7.98 Impact Factor
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    • "The method was validated according to current European criteria. Then it was applied to a set of 30 breast milk samples collected at a regional scale, providing the first set of preliminary exposure assessment data in France, which was compared to other similar data collected in other countries (Bets, 2007; Tao et al., 2008a,b; Völkel et al., 2008; Llorca et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are man-made chemicals for which endocrine disrupting properties and related possible side effects on human health have been reported, particularly in the case of an exposure during the early stages of development, (notably the perinatal period). Existing analytical methods dedicated to PFCs monitoring in food and/or human fluids are currently based on liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, and were recently demonstrated to present some limitations in terms of sensitivity and/or specificity. An alternative strategy dedicated to the analysis of fourteen PFCs in human breast milk was proposed, based on an effective sample preparation followed by a liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry measurement (LC-HRMS). This methodology confirmed the high interest for HRMS after negative ionization for such halogenated substances, and finally permitted to reach detection limits around the pg mL(-1) range with an outstanding signal specificity compared to LC-MS/MS. The proposed method was applied to a first set of 30 breast milk samples from French women. The main PFCs detected in all these samples were PFOS and PFOA with respective median values of 74 (range from 24 to 171) and 57 (range from 18 to 102) pg mL(-1), respectively. These exposure data appeared in the same range as other reported values for European countries.
    Chemosphere 08/2011; 85(3):473-80. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.07.077 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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