Infant exposure of perfluorinated compounds: levels in breast milk and commercial baby food.
ABSTRACT In this study, an analytical method to determine six perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) based on alkaline digestion and solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography-quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-QqLIT-MS) was validated for the analysis of human breast milk, milk infant formulas and cereals baby food. The average recoveries of the different matrices were in general higher than 70% with a relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than 21% and method limits of detection (MLOD) ranging from 1.2 to 362 ng/L for the different compounds and matrices. The method was applied to investigate the occurrence of PFCs in 20 samples of human breast milk, and 5 samples of infant formulas and cereal baby food (3 brands of commercial milk infant formulas and 2 brands of cereals baby food). Breast milk samples were collected in 2008 from donors living in Barcelona city (Spain) on the 40 days postpartum. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoro-7-methyloctanoic acid (i,p-PFNA) were predominant being present in the 95% of breast milk samples. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was quantified in 8 of the 20 breast milk samples at concentrations in the range of 21-907 ng/L. Commercial formulas and food were purchased also in 2009 from a retail store. The six PFCs were detected in all brands of milk infant formulas and cereals baby food analyzed, being perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), PFOS, PFOA and i,p-PFNA the compounds detected in higher concentrations (up to 1289 ng/kg). PFCs presence can be associated to possible migration from packaging and containers during production processes. Finally, based on estimated body weight and newborn intake, PFOS and PFOA daily intakes and risk indexes (RI) were estimated for the firsts 6 month of life. We found that ingestion rates of PFOS and PFOA, with exception of one breast milk sample did not exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) recommended by the EFSA. However, more research is needed in order to assess possible risk associated to PFCs contamination during early stages of life.
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ABSTRACT: This paper describes the development and validation of an analytical methodology to determine eight perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in edible fish using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with water and solid-phase extraction (SPE) with an ion-exchanger as extraction and pre-concentration procedures, followed by liquid chromatography-quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-QqLIT-MS). The rapidity and effectiveness of the proposed extraction procedure were compared with those most commonly used to isolate PFCs from fish (ion-pairing and alkaline digestion). The average recoveries of the different fish samples, spiked with the eight PFCs at three levels (the LOQ, 10 and 100 microg kg(-1) of each PFC), were always higher than 85% with relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than 17%. A good linearity was established for the eight PFCs in the range from 0.003-0.05 to 100 microg kg(-1), with r>0.9994. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were between 0.003 and 0.05 microg kg(-1), which are well below those previously reported for this type of samples. Compared with previous methods, sample preparation time and/or LOQs are reduced. The method demonstrated its successful application for the analysis of different parts of several fish species. Most of the samples tested positive, mainly for perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPA), perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) but other of the eight studied PFCs were also present.Journal of chromatography. A 07/2009; 1216(43):7195-204. · 4.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Concentrations of perfluorinated acids (PFAs) were measured in various environmental matrices (air, rain, snow, surface runoff water, and lake water) in an urban area, to enable identification of sources and pathways of PFAs to urban water bodies. Total PFA concentrations ranged from 8.28 to 16.0 pg/ m3 (mean 11.3) in bulk air (sum of vapor and particulate phases), 0.91 to 13.2 ng/L (6.19) in rainwater, 0.91 to 23.9 ng/L (7.98) in snow, 1.11-81.8 ng/L (15.1 ng/L) in surface runoff water (SRW), and 9.49 to 35.9 ng/L (21.8) in lake water. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the predominant compound, accounting for > 35% of the total PFA concentrations, in all environmental matrices analyzed. Concentrations and relative compositions of PFAs in SRW were similar to those found for urban lakes. SRW contributes to contamination by PFOA in urban lakes. The measured concentration ratios of FTOH to PFOA in air were 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than the ratios calculated based on an assumption of exclusive atmospheric oxidation of FTOHs. Nevertheless, the mass balance analysis suggested the presence of an unknown input pathway that could contribute to a significant amount of total PFOA loadings to the lake. Flux estimates of PFOA at the air-water interface in the urban lake suggest net volatilization from water.Environmental Science and Technology 12/2007; 41(24):8328-34. · 5.26 Impact Factor
- Environmental Science and Technology 09/2009; 43(15):6112; author reply 6110-1. · 5.26 Impact Factor