Infant exposure of perfluorinated compounds: levels in breast milk and commercial baby food.
ABSTRACT In this study, an analytical method to determine six perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) based on alkaline digestion and solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography-quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-QqLIT-MS) was validated for the analysis of human breast milk, milk infant formulas and cereals baby food. The average recoveries of the different matrices were in general higher than 70% with a relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than 21% and method limits of detection (MLOD) ranging from 1.2 to 362 ng/L for the different compounds and matrices. The method was applied to investigate the occurrence of PFCs in 20 samples of human breast milk, and 5 samples of infant formulas and cereal baby food (3 brands of commercial milk infant formulas and 2 brands of cereals baby food). Breast milk samples were collected in 2008 from donors living in Barcelona city (Spain) on the 40 days postpartum. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoro-7-methyloctanoic acid (i,p-PFNA) were predominant being present in the 95% of breast milk samples. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was quantified in 8 of the 20 breast milk samples at concentrations in the range of 21-907 ng/L. Commercial formulas and food were purchased also in 2009 from a retail store. The six PFCs were detected in all brands of milk infant formulas and cereals baby food analyzed, being perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), PFOS, PFOA and i,p-PFNA the compounds detected in higher concentrations (up to 1289 ng/kg). PFCs presence can be associated to possible migration from packaging and containers during production processes. Finally, based on estimated body weight and newborn intake, PFOS and PFOA daily intakes and risk indexes (RI) were estimated for the firsts 6 month of life. We found that ingestion rates of PFOS and PFOA, with exception of one breast milk sample did not exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) recommended by the EFSA. However, more research is needed in order to assess possible risk associated to PFCs contamination during early stages of life.
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ABSTRACT: Water, sediment, plankton, and blood and liver tissues of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) and mandarin fish (Siniperca scherzeri) were collected from six major rivers and lakes in South Korea (including Namhan River, Bukhan River, Nakdong River, Nam River, Yeongsan River and Sangsa Lake) and analyzed for perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs). Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was consistently detected at the greatest concentrations in all media surveyed with the maximum concentration in water of 15ngL(-1) and in biota of 234ngmL(-1) (fish blood). A general ascending order of PFAS concentration of water<sediment<plankton<crucian carp tissues<mandarin fish tissues was found. Except for the Nakdong River and Yeongsan River, the sum PFAS concentrations in water samples were below 10ngL(-1). The PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentrations in water did not exceed levels for acute and/or chronic effects in aquatic organisms. High concentrations of long chain perfluorocarboxylates (LCPFCAs) were found in sediment samples. PFOS, perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) accounted for 94-99% of the total PFASs concentration in fish tissues. The mean ratios of PFAS concentration between fish blood and fish liver were above 2 suggesting higher levels in blood than in liver. Significant positive correlations (r>0.80, p<0.001) were observed between PFOS concentration in blood and liver tissues of both crucian carp and mandarin fish. This result suggests that blood can be used for nonlethal monitoring of PFOS in fish. Overall, the rank order of mean bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of PFOS in biota was; phytoplankton (196L/kg)<zooplankton (3233L/kg)<crucian carp liver (4567L/kg)<crucian carp blood (11,167L/kg)<mandarin liver (24,718L/kg)<mandarin blood (73,612L/kg).Science of The Total Environment 02/2014; · 3.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are fully fluorinated compounds widely used during the last 60 yr in the production of multiple industrial and consumer applications, such as food packaging, nonstick cookware, cleaning agents, and many more. These emerging contaminants have recently become of concern for human health because of their potential negative effects. The risk of exposure to PFAS for humans is mainly related to diet, and the increasing interest in food safety has led the European Commission to call Member States to monitor these contaminants in food matrices. The purpose of the present work was to perform the first monitoring on the presence of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), the 2 main and most widely investigated molecules of this family, in cow milk commercially available in Italy. We used an analytical protocol consisting of liquid-liquid extraction followed by 2 purification steps through solid-phase extraction cartridges and injection on an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy system. The analysis of 67 samples of different types of cow milk from Italy demonstrated that contamination by PFOS was often present, although at relatively low concentrations (up to 97 ng/L), whereas PFOA was rarely found. On the basis of these results and data reported in the literature on this matrix, milk does not seem to be a major source of PFAS compared with other food categories such as fish and seafood. However, variability among different types of milk must be taken into account, and surveys of milk-derived products would be helpful to better define the risk for consumers.Journal of Dairy Science 04/2014; · 2.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the present study, a novel analytical approach for the simultaneous determination of 18 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and 11 brominated flame retardants (BFRs) including their hydroxylated metabolites and brominated phenols has been developed and validated for breast milk and infant formula. The sample preparation procedure based on extraction using acetonitrile and subsequent purification by dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) employing C18 sorbent is rapid, simple and high-throughput. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) interfaced with a tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was employed for the identification/quantification of these compounds. The method recoveries of target compounds for both matrices ranged from 80% to 117% with relative standard deviations lower than 28% and quantification limits in the range of 3-200pg/mL for milk and 5-450pg/g for infant formula. Within the pilot study, the new method was used for the analysis of PFASs and BFRs in 50 human breast milks and six infant formulas. In the breast milk samples the total contents of PFASs and BFRs were in the range of 38-279 and 45-16,200pg/mL, respectively. The most abundant PFASs detected in all tested breast milk samples were perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), the latter contaminant was present not only as a linear form but also as a branched isomers. The incidence of BFRs was lower, the only representatives of this group, tetrabromobiphenol A (TBBPA) and α-hexabromocyclododecane (α-HBCD), were detected in less than 30% of breast milk samples. None of the infant formulas contained BFRs, traces of either PFOS, PFOA or PFNA were found in three samples.Talanta 12/2013; 117C:318-325. · 3.50 Impact Factor