[Controversies in the surgical treatment of primary gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST)].
ABSTRACT It is estimated that 50% of GIST are located at the time of their diagnosis. A complete surgical resection can be performed in up to 95% of these cases, making this the most important prognostic factor. This surgery must fulfil a series of technical requirements so as to be really effective, as it has to be R0, with no tumour rupture, with preservation of the pseudo-capsule, etc. Although the majority of GIST are gastric, their location in other anatomical areas, such as the oesophagus, duodenum or rectum, require the surgeon to use more complex techniques. Laparoscopy is increasingly used; however, we must avoid its use, due to there being few experienced groups or if there are large tumours. The use of neoadjuvant therapy has revived great interest by allowing to resection tumours that were once non-resectable or in very compromised anatomical locations, with less aggressive surgery. The use of pre-surgical biopsy is not exempt from serious risks, thus it should only be used for establishing a neoadjuvant treatment or if there are diagnostic doubts with other diseases in high risk patients.