Phosphatase-Dependent and -Independent Functions of Shp2 in Neural Crest Cells Underlie LEOPARD Syndrome Pathogenesis

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Pediatric Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Developmental Cell (Impact Factor: 10.37). 05/2010; 18(5):750-62. DOI: 10.1016/j.devcel.2010.03.009
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 (PTPN11) regulates cellular proliferation, survival, migration, and differentiation during development. Germline mutations in PTPN11 cause Noonan and LEOPARD syndromes, which have overlapping clinical features. Paradoxically, Noonan syndrome mutations increase SHP2 phosphatase activity, while LEOPARD syndrome mutants are catalytically impaired, raising the possibility that SHP2 has phosphatase-independent roles. By comparing shp2-deficient zebrafish embryos with those injected with mRNA encoding LEOPARD syndrome point mutations, we identify a phosphatase- and Erk-dependent role for Shp2 in neural crest specification and migration. We also identify an unexpected phosphatase- and Erk-independent function, mediated through its SH2 domains, which is evolutionarily conserved and prevents p53-mediated apoptosis in the brain and neural crest. Our results indicate that previously enigmatic aspects of LEOPARD syndrome pathogenesis can be explained by the combined effects of loss of Shp2 catalytic function and retention of an SH2 domain-mediated role that is essential for neural crest cell survival.

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    ABSTRACT: LEOPARD syndrome (multiple Lentigines, Electrocardiographic conduction abnormalities, Ocular hypertelorism, Pulmonary stenosis, Abnormal genitalia, Retardation of growth, sensorineural Deafness; LS), also called Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML), is a rare autosomal dominant disorder associating various developmental defects, notably cardiopathies, dysmorphism, and short stature. It is mainly caused by mutations of the PTPN11 gene that catalytically inactivate the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 (Src-homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase 2). Besides its pleiotropic roles during development, SHP2 plays key functions in energetic metabolism regulation. However, the metabolic outcomes of LS mutations have never been examined. Therefore, we performed an extensive metabolic exploration of an original LS mouse model, expressing the T468M mutation of SHP2, frequently borne by LS patients. Our results reveal that, besides expected symptoms, LS animals display a strong reduction of adiposity and resistance to diet-induced obesity, associated with overall better metabolic profile. We provide evidence that LS mutant expression impairs adipogenesis, triggers energy expenditure, and enhances insulin signaling, three features that can contribute to the lean phenotype of LS mice. Interestingly, chronic treatment of LS mice with low doses of MEK inhibitor, but not rapamycin, resulted in weight and adiposity gains. Importantly, preliminary data in a French cohort of LS patients suggests that most of them have lower-than-average body mass index, associated, for tested patients, with reduced adiposity. Altogether, these findings unravel previously unidentified characteristics for LS, which could represent a metabolic benefit for patients, but may also participate to the development or worsening of some traits of the disease. Beyond LS, they also highlight a protective role of SHP2 global LS-mimicking modulation toward the development of obesity and associated disorders.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2014; 111(42). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1406107111 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The alternative activation of M2 macrophages in the lungs has been implicated as a causative agent in pulmonary fibrosis; however, the mechanisms underlying M2 polarization are poorly characterized. In this study, we investigated the role of the ubiquitously expressed Src homology domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 in this process. Shp2 inactivation augmented IL-4-mediated M2 polarization in vitro, suggesting that Shp2 regulates macrophage skewing and prevents a bias toward the M2 phenotype. Conditional removal of Shp2 in monocytes/macrophages with lysozyme M promoter-driven Cre recombinase caused an IL-4-mediated shift toward M2 polarization. Additionally, an increase in arginase activity was detected in Shp2(∆/∆) mice after i.p. injection of chitin, whereas Shp2-deficient macrophages showed enhanced M2 polarization and protection against schistosome egg-induced schistosomiasis. Furthermore, mutants were more sensitive than control mice to bleomycin-induced inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis. Shp2 was associated with IL-4Rα and inhibited JAK1/STAT6 signaling through its phosphatase activity; loss of Shp2 promoted the association of JAK1 with IL-4Rα, which enhanced IL-4-mediated JAK1/STAT6 activation that resulted in M2 skewing. Taken together, these findings define a role for Shp2 in alveolar macrophages and reveal that Shp2 is required to inhibit the progression of M2-associated pulmonary fibrosis.
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    ABSTRACT: Noonan syndrome (NS) and LEOPARD syndrome (LS) cause congenital afflictions such as short stature, hypertelorism and heart defects. More than 50% of NS and almost all of LS cases are caused by activating and inactivating mutations of the phosphatase Shp2, respectively. How these biochemically opposing mutations lead to similar clinical outcomes is not clear. Using zebrafish models of NS and LS and mass spectrometry-based phosphotyrosine proteomics, we identified a down-regulated peptide of Fer kinase in both NS and LS. Further investigation showed a role for Fer during development, where morpholino-based knockdown caused craniofacial defects, heart edema and short stature. During gastrulation, loss of Fer caused convergence and extension defects without affecting cell fate. Moreover, Fer knockdown cooperated with NS and LS, but not wild type Shp2 to induce developmental defects, suggesting a role for Fer in the pathogenesis of both NS and LS.
    PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e106682. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0106682 · 3.53 Impact Factor

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May 28, 2014

Takaomi Sanda