Phosphatase-Dependent and -Independent Functions of Shp2 in Neural Crest Cells Underlie LEOPARD Syndrome Pathogenesis

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Pediatric Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Developmental Cell (Impact Factor: 10.37). 05/2010; 18(5):750-62. DOI: 10.1016/j.devcel.2010.03.009
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 (PTPN11) regulates cellular proliferation, survival, migration, and differentiation during development. Germline mutations in PTPN11 cause Noonan and LEOPARD syndromes, which have overlapping clinical features. Paradoxically, Noonan syndrome mutations increase SHP2 phosphatase activity, while LEOPARD syndrome mutants are catalytically impaired, raising the possibility that SHP2 has phosphatase-independent roles. By comparing shp2-deficient zebrafish embryos with those injected with mRNA encoding LEOPARD syndrome point mutations, we identify a phosphatase- and Erk-dependent role for Shp2 in neural crest specification and migration. We also identify an unexpected phosphatase- and Erk-independent function, mediated through its SH2 domains, which is evolutionarily conserved and prevents p53-mediated apoptosis in the brain and neural crest. Our results indicate that previously enigmatic aspects of LEOPARD syndrome pathogenesis can be explained by the combined effects of loss of Shp2 catalytic function and retention of an SH2 domain-mediated role that is essential for neural crest cell survival.

Download full-text


Available from: Benjamin G Neel, Jul 03, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Proper neural crest development and migration is critical during embryonic development, but the molecular mechanisms regulating this process remain incompletely understood. Here, we show that the protein kinase Erk, which plays a central role in a number of key developmental processes in vertebrates, is regulated in the developing neural crest by p21-activated protein kinase 1 (Pak1). Furthermore, we show that activated Erk signals by phosphorylating the transcription factor Gata6 on a conserved serine residue to promote neural crest migration and proper formation of craniofacial structures, pigment cells, and the outflow tract of the heart. Our data suggest an essential role for Pak1 as an Erk activator, and Gata6 as an Erk target, during neural crest development.
    Developmental Cell 05/2014; 29(3):350-9. DOI:10.1016/j.devcel.2014.04.003 · 10.37 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neural crest cells are a transient population of stem cells that give rise to a diverse range of cell types during embryonic development. Through gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies in several model organisms many key signalling pathways and cell-type specific transcription factors essential for neural crest cell development have been identified. However, the role of post-translational regulation remains largely unexplored. Here we review this cell type with a foray into the known and potential roles of the ubiquitination system in key signalling events during neural crest cell development.
    The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 02/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.biocel.2013.02.014 · 4.24 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this review, we focus on elucidating the cardiac function of germline mutations in the PTPN11 gene, encoding the Src homology-2 (SH2) domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2. PTPN11 mutations cause LEOPARD syndrome (LS) and Noonan syndrome (NS), two disorders that are part of a newly classified family of autosomal dominant syndromes termed "RASopathies," which are caused by germline mutations in components of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK mitogen activating protein kinase pathway. LS and NS mutants have opposing biochemical properties, and yet, in patients, these mutations produce similar cardiac abnormalities. Precisely how LS and NS mutations lead to such similar disease etiology remains largely unknown. Recent complementary in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo analyses reveal new insights into the functions of SHP2 in normal and pathological cardiac development. These findings also reveal the need for individualized therapeutic approaches in the treatment of patients with LS and NS and, more broadly, patients with the other "RASopathy" gene mutations as well.
    Trends in cardiovascular medicine 05/2011; 21(4):97-104. DOI:10.1016/j.tcm.2012.03.006 · 2.07 Impact Factor