Large-scale networks in cognition: emerging methods and principles. Trends Cogn Sci

Center for Complex Systems and Brain Sciences, Department of Psychology, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, USA.
Trends in Cognitive Sciences (Impact Factor: 21.97). 06/2010; 14(6):277-90. DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2010.04.004
Source: PubMed


An understanding of how the human brain produces cognition ultimately depends on knowledge of large-scale brain organization. Although it has long been assumed that cognitive functions are attributable to the isolated operations of single brain areas, we demonstrate that the weight of evidence has now shifted in support of the view that cognition results from the dynamic interactions of distributed brain areas operating in large-scale networks. We review current research on structural and functional brain organization, and argue that the emerging science of large-scale brain networks provides a coherent framework for understanding of cognition. Critically, this framework allows a principled exploration of how cognitive functions emerge from, and are constrained by, core structural and functional networks of the brain.

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Available from: Steven L Bressler,
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    • "Structural brain networks possess complex organizational features that are thought to underlie efficient neural communication. Connections impose strong constraints on functional interactions among brain areas (Bressler and Menon, 2010; Park and Friston, 2013; Wang et al., 2014). It is thus essential to understand the principles that underlie the organization of connections and give rise to the topological properties of the cortex. "
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    ABSTRACT: Anatomical connectivity imposes strong constraints on brain function, but there is no general agreement about principles that govern its organization. Based on extensive quantitative data we tested the power of three models to predict connections of the primate cerebral cortex: architectonic similarity (structural model), spatial proximity (distance model) and thickness similarity (thickness model). Architectonic similarity showed the strongest and most consistent influence on connection features. This parameter was strongly associated with the presence or absence of inter-areal connections and when integrated with spatial distance, the model allowed predicting the existence of projections with very high accuracy. Moreover, architectonic similarity was strongly related to the laminar pattern of projections origins, and the absolute number of cortical connections of an area. By contrast, cortical thickness similarity and distance were not systematically related to connection features. These findings suggest that cortical architecture provides a general organizing principle for connections in the primate brain.
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    • "disorders (Bressler and Menon, 2010; Insel, 2010). A small number of research groups have begun to document how and when these functional networks develop in typical neonates (Lin et al., 2008; Gao et al., 2009; Fransson et al., 2013), and have shown that prenatal exposure to other psychoactive drugs alters early structure (Grewen et al., 2014; Knickmeyer et al., 2014) and connectivity (Salzwedel et al., 2015). "
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    ABSTRACT: Prenatal marijuana exposure (PME) is linked to neurobehavioral and cognitive impairments, however findings in childhood and adolescence are inconsistent. Type-1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R) modulate fetal neurodevelopment, mediating PME effects on growth of functional circuitry sub-serving behaviors critical for academic and social success. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal marijuana on development of early brain functional circuitry prior to prolonged postnatal environmental influences. We measured resting state functional connectivity during unsedated sleep in infants at 2-6 weeks (+MJ: 20 with PME in combination with nicotine, alcohol, opiates, and/or SSRI; -MJ: 23 exposed to the same other drugs without marijuana, CTR: 20 drug free controls). Connectivity of subcortical seed regions with high fetal CB1R expression was examined. Marijuana-specific differences were observed in insula and three striatal connections: anterior insula – cerebellum, right caudate – cerebellum, right caudate – right fusiform gyrus/inferior occipital, left caudate – cerebellum. +MJ neonates had hypoconnectivity in all clusters compared with -MJ and CTR groups. Altered striatal connectivity to areas involved in visual spatial and motor learning, attention, and in fine-tuning of motor outputs involved in movement and language production may contribute to neurobehavioral deficits reported in this at-risk group. Disrupted anterior insula connectivity may contribute to altered integration of interoceptive signals with salience estimates, motivation, decision-making, and later drug use. Compared with CTRs, both +MJ and -MJ groups demonstrated hyperconnectivity of left amygdala seed with orbital frontal cortex and hypoconnectivity of posterior thalamus seed with hippocampus, suggesting vulnerability to multiple drugs in these circuits.
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 11/2015; 9. DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2015.00601 · 3.63 Impact Factor
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    • "Specifically, the dlPFC and LPC areas mentioned above as part of DES have been associated with the " fronto-parietal " (FPN) or " central-executive " network (Seeley et al. 2007; Dosenbach et al. 2008; Bressler and Menon 2010; Yeo et al. 2011; Power and Petersen 2013). Turning to the VAS regions, the vlPFC is typically considered part of the " salience " (SN) or " ventral-attentional " network (Seeley et al. 2007; Corbetta et al. 2008; Bressler and Menon 2010) and has been associated with both processing of salient information (Seeley et al. 2007; Corbetta et al. 2008; Bressler and Menon 2010) and response inhibition (Aron et al. 2004, 2014; Aron 2007), and affect regulation (Kober et al. 2008; Vytal and Hamann 2010; Ochsner et al. 2012; but see Hampshire et al. 2010). Consistent with these functional associations, empirical evidence from studies of emotional distraction points to vlPFC involvement in both basic emotion processing and coping with distracting emotions (reviewed in Dolcos et al. 2011; Iordan, Dolcos, Dolcos, et al. 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Previous investigations showed that the impact of negative distraction on cognitive processing is linked to increased activation in a ventral affective system (VAS) and simultaneous deactivation in a dorsal executive system (DES). However, less in known about the influences of positive valence and different arousal levels on these effects. FMRI data were recorded while participants performed a working memory (WM) task, with positive and negative pictures presented as distracters during the delay between the memoranda and probes. First, positive distraction had reduced impact on WM performance, compared to negative distraction. Second, fMRI results identified valence-specific effects in DES regions and overlapping arousal and valence effects in VAS regions, suggesting increased impact of negative distraction and enhanced engagement of coping mechanisms for positive distraction. Third, a valence-related rostro-caudal dissociation was identified in medial frontal regions associated with the default-mode network (DMN). Finally, these DMN regions showed increased functional connectivity with DES regions for negative compared to positive distraction. Overall, these findings suggest that, while both positive and negative distraction engage partly similar arousal-dependent mechanisms, their differential impact on WM performance is linked to dissociations in the engagement of, and coupling between, regions associated with emotion processing and higher-lever cognitive control.
    Cerebral Cortex 11/2015; DOI:10.1093/cercor/bhv242 · 8.67 Impact Factor
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