Gender consistency and difference in healthy adults revealed by cortical thickness.
ABSTRACT Many previous studies have shown that there exists the gender effect on the structural and functional organization in the human brain. Although the reported functional differences are generally consistent, the structural differences are controversial among the various studies. In this study, we particularly focused on the gender-related effect in the gray matter (GM). We performed a structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study in 184 healthy adults (90 males and 94 females) with ages ranging from 18 to 70 years. Cortical thickness was measured using an automated surface-based method. Based on this surface morphological feature of GM, we first compared their regional differences between males and females. We then constructed the morphometry-based anatomical networks derived from cortical thickness measurement, while the anatomical connection between two cortical areas depended upon the statistical dependence of their cortical thickness across subjects. Subsequently, we applied graph theoretical approaches to investigate the properties of the resultant anatomical networks. The results showed that the significant gender-related differences of cortical thickness appeared extensively in the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes. And there were also some between-group differences in the interregional correlation. Additional graph theoretical analysis on the morphological networks revealed both networks exhibited the small-world efficiency and their patterns of topological vulnerability had no statistical differences. The findings on the large sample may provide the evidences to study the gender consistency and difference in the human brain structures.
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ABSTRACT: The authors describe almost entirely automated procedures for estimation of global, voxel, and cluster-level statistics to test the null hypothesis of zero neuroanatomical difference between two groups of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Theoretical distributions under the null hypothesis are available for (1) global tissue class volumes; (2) standardized linear model [analysis of variance (ANOVA and ANCOVA)] coefficients estimated at each voxel; and (3) an area of spatially connected clusters generated by applying an arbitrary threshold to a two-dimensional (2-D) map of normal statistics at voxel level. The authors describe novel methods for economically ascertaining probability distributions under the null hypothesis, with fewer assumptions, by permutation of the observed data. Nominal Type I error control by permutation testing is generally excellent; whereas theoretical distributions may be over conservative. Permutation has the additional advantage that it can be used to test any statistic of interest, such as the sum of suprathreshold voxel statistics in a cluster (or cluster mass), regardless of its theoretical tractability under the null hypothesis. These issues are illustrated by application to MRI data acquired from 18 adolescents with hyperkinetic disorder and 16 control subjects matched for age and gender.IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging. 01/1999; 18:32-42.
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ABSTRACT: Automatic computer processing of large multidimensional images such as those produced by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is greatly aided by deformable models, which are used to extract, identify, and quantify specific neuroanatomic structures. A general method of deforming polyhedra is presented here, with two novel features. First, explicit prevention of self-intersecting surface geometries is provided, unlike conventional deformable models, which use regularization constraints to discourage but not necessarily prevent such behavior. Second, deformation of multiple surfaces with intersurface proximity constraints allows each surface to help guide other surfaces into place using model-based constraints such as expected thickness of an anatomic surface. These two features are used advantageously to identify automatically the total surface of the outer and inner boundaries of cerebral cortical gray matter from normal human MR images, accurately locating the depths of the sulci, even where noise and partial volume artifacts in the image obscure the visibility of sulci. The extracted surfaces are enforced to be simple two-dimensional manifolds (having the topology of a sphere), even though the data may have topological holes. This automatic 3-D cortex segmentation technique has been applied to 150 normal subjects, simultaneously extracting both the gray/white and gray/cerebrospinal fluid interface from each individual. The collection of surfaces has been used to create a spatial map of the mean and standard deviation for the location and the thickness of cortical gray matter. Three alternative criteria for defining cortical thickness at each cortical location were developed and compared. These results are shown to corroborate published postmortem and in vivo measurements of cortical thickness.NeuroImage 10/2000; · 6.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The quantitative analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data has become increasingly important in both research and clinical studies aiming at human brain development, function, and pathology. Inevitably, the role of quantitative image analysis in the evaluation of drug therapy will increase, driven in part by requirements imposed by regulatory agencies. However, the prohibitive length of time involved and the significant intraand inter-rater variability of the measurements obtained from manual analysis of large MRI databases represent major obstacles to the wider application of quantitative MRI analysis. We have developed a fully automatic "pipeline" image analysis framework and have successfully applied it to a number of large-scale, multicenter studies (more than 1,000 MRI scans). This pipeline system is based on robust image processing algorithms, executed in a parallel, distributed fashion. This paper describes the application of this system to the automatic quantification of multiple sclerosis lesion load in MRI, in the context of a phase III clinical trial. The pipeline results were evaluated through an extensive validation study, revealing that the obtained lesion measurements are statistically indistinguishable from those obtained by trained human observers. Given that intra- and inter-rater measurement variability is eliminated by automatic analysis, this system enhances the ability to detect small treatment effects not readily detectable through conventional analysis techniques. While useful for clinical trial analysis in multiple sclerosis, this system holds widespread potential for applications in other neurological disorders, as well as for the study of neurobiology in general.IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 11/2002; 21(10):1280-91. · 4.03 Impact Factor