Tai chi on psychological well-being: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Complement Altern Med 10:23

Division of Rheumatology, Tufts Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine (Impact Factor: 2.02). 05/2010; 10(1):23. DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-10-23
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Physical activity and exercise appear to improve psychological health. However, the quantitative effects of Tai Chi on psychological well-being have rarely been examined. We systematically reviewed the effects of Tai Chi on stress, anxiety, depression and mood disturbance in eastern and western populations.
Eight English and 3 Chinese databases were searched through March 2009. Randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled studies and observational studies reporting at least 1 psychological health outcome were examined. Data were extracted and verified by 2 reviewers. The randomized trials in each subcategory of health outcomes were meta-analyzed using a random-effects model. The quality of each study was assessed.
Forty studies totaling 3817 subjects were identified. Approximately 29 psychological measurements were assessed. Twenty-one of 33 randomized and nonrandomized trials reported that 1 hour to 1 year of regular Tai Chi significantly increased psychological well-being including reduction of stress (effect size [ES], 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23 to 1.09), anxiety (ES, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.29 to 1.03), and depression (ES, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.80), and enhanced mood (ES, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.69) in community-dwelling healthy participants and in patients with chronic conditions. Seven observational studies with relatively large sample sizes reinforced the beneficial association between Tai Chi practice and psychological health.
Tai Chi appears to be associated with improvements in psychological well-being including reduced stress, anxiety, depression and mood disturbance, and increased self-esteem. Definitive conclusions were limited due to variation in designs, comparisons, heterogeneous outcomes and inadequate controls. High-quality, well-controlled, longer randomized trials are needed to better inform clinical decisions.

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    • "It is a consensus that a single bout of exercise improves affect (Anderson & Brice, 2011; Dasilva et al., 2011; Szabo, 2003a), which is a mental state that reflects how an activity or a particular situation impacts the person (Duncan & Barrett, 2007). The benefits of a single workout on affect were previously observed in different exercises, including: dance aerobics (Rokka et al., 2010), Nordic walking (Stark et al., 2011), running (Hoffman & Hoffman, 2008; Szabo, 2003a), shadowboxing (Li & Yin, 2008), swimming (Valentine & Evans, 2001), taekwondo (Toskovic, 2001), tai chi (Wang et al, 2010), walking (Dasilva et al., 2011), and yoga (Streeter et al., 2010). Spinning, also referred to as exercise biking or indoor cycling, is ranked among top ten most popular sports among women (Sport England, 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Numerous physical exercises trigger positive changes in affect after relatively short workouts. Spinning, also known as indoor-cycling, is a very popular form of exercise, especially among women, but its impact on affect have not been examined to date. Aims: The purpose of the current work was to investigate the possible benefits of spinning on affect in self-controlled and in instructor-led exercise sessions. Methods: Using baseline measures and pre- to post-exercise design with a psychometrically validated questionnaire, the net effects of spinning (without music) on positive- and negative-affect were measured in two exercise conditions: (1) self-controlled workout (i.e. without an instructor) and (2) instructor-led workout. After both conditions, 18 women rated the extent which they enjoyed the exercise session on a 10-point Likert scale. Results: The findings revealed that positive affect increased while negative affect decreased after both workouts. Exerted effort, measured through the heart rate, did not differ between the two conditions. However, participants enjoyed more the instructor-led exercise session than the self-regulated workout (effect size, Cohen's d = 0.93). Conclusions: This research reveals that spinning improves post-exercise affect, even without music and regardless of instructor’s presence. Therefore, it demonstrates the net benefits of this popular exercise on affect. Read More:
    Journal of Mental Health 05/2015; 24(3):145-149. DOI:10.3109/09638237.2015.1019053 · 1.01 Impact Factor
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    • "Otro estudio (Szabo & Abraham, 2012) con corredores recreativos, vinculaban los efectos positivos sobre el BPS a un efecto placebo derivado de la intención de mejora del acondicionamiento físico y/o las perspectivas de rendimiento, independientemente de la modalidad desarrollada. En este sentido, diferentes estudios muestran que aparte de la AF practicada, contribuye de forma notable en la mejora del BPS y/o emocional (Janisse, Nedd, Escamilla, & Nies, 2004; Zanuso, Sieverdes, Smith, Carraro, & Bergamin, 2012; Wang et al., 2010), sin que la duración ni intensidad sean factores que medien (Szabo, 2013). Por otro lado, aunque el factor contextual pueda influir (Martens, Gutscher, & Bauer, 2011; Shin et al., 2013), la imposibilidad de modificar el lugar de práctica , hace pensar que son las diferencias individuales las que parecen mediar directamente en cuanto a los efectos del ejercicio físico sobre el BPS en última instancia (Reed & Ones, 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Inteligencia emocional percibida y el bienestar psicológico de estudiantes universitarios en función del nivel de actividad física Perceived emotional intelligence and the psychological well-being of university students depending on the practice of physical activity Resumen El objetivo principal fue analizar la inteligencia emo-cional percibida y el bienestar psicológico de los estu-diantes universitarios en función de la práctica de activi-dad física. Se utilizó una muestra de 1008 estudiantes de una universidad pública andaluza con edades compren-didas entre los 17 y los 30 años, de los cuales 414 eran físicamente activos y 594 insuficientemente activos. Se emplearon diferentes cuestionarios para evaluar la acti-vidad física habitual, la inteligencia emocional percibi-da y el bienestar psicológico. El análisis de correlaciones mostró que los constructos de claridad y reparación emocional correlacionaban positiva y significativamen-te con la autoestima y satisfacción con la vida. Se encon-traron diferencias significativas entre los universitarios físicamente activos y los que no en todas las variables, salvo en la atención emocional. Los alumnos físicamente activos mostraron puntuaciones más elevadas en las variables que medían el bienestar (autoestima y satisfac-ción con la vida), en la claridad y reparación emocional. Los resultados se discuten en relación a la promoción de la actividad física como favorecedora del bienestar y la inteligencia emocional percibida en el alumnado universitario. Palabras clave: Actividad física habitual, inteligencia emocional, bienestar psicológico, estudiantes universi-tarios. Abstract The main objective was to analyse the perceived emotional intelligence and the psychological wellbeing of university students with regard to their physical activity practice. A sample of 1008 students from a public university in Andalusia, Spain, was utilised. The subjects were between 17 and 30 years of age. Four-hundred and fourteen subjects were physically active, and 614 subjects were less active. Various questionnaires were utilised to evaluate the subjects´ormal physical activity, their perceived emotional intelligence, and their psychological wellbeing. The correlational analysis demonstrated that the constructs of emotional clarity and repair were positively and significantly related to self-esteem and life satisfaction. Significant differences were found between the physically active subjects and those that were not active for all variables, except in the emotional attention. The physically active students demonstrated higher scores for the variables that measured wellbeing (self-esteem and life satisfaction), for clarity, and for emotional repair. The results are discussed in relation to the promotion of physical activity, as favouring wellbeing and perceived emotional intelligence for university students.
    Cultura, Ciencia y Deporte 03/2015; 10(28):31-39. DOI:10.12800/ccd.v10i28.513
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    • "Other factors besides the potential aerobic component of these programs may explain the positive effect on motor symptoms. Indeed, practicing standing balance activities, motor skill learning in the presence of external cues provided by a partner, music in dance therapy, or the psychological benefits of Tai Chi such as reducing stress and anxiety and increasing self-esteem could play a role in motor improvement in PD (Duncan & Earhart, 2012; Ni et al., 2014; Wang et al., 2010). There is a need for a well-designed controlled clinical trial that is powered to detect differences in the motor signs of PD that includes both on and off medication testing to truly assess motor signs of PD changes without any confounding effect of medication. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This paper reviews the therapeutically beneficial effects of progressive resistance exercise training (PRET) on motor and nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Methods: First, we perform a systematic review of the literature on the effects of PRET on motor signs of PD, functional outcomes, quality of life, and patient perceived improvement, strength, and cognition in PD. Second, we perform a meta-analysis on the motor section of the UPDRS. Finally, we discuss the results of our review and we identify current knowledge gaps regarding PRET in PD. Conclusion: This systematic review synthesizes evidence that PRET can improve strength and motor signs of Parkinsonism in PD and may also be beneficial for physical function in individuals with PD. Further research is needed to explore the effects of PRET on nonmotor symptoms such as depression, cognitive impairment, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, and quality of life in individuals with PD.
    02/2015; Volume 4(Issue 1):11 – 27. DOI:10.1123/kr.2014-0074
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