Duration of effect of oral long-acting stimulant medications for ADHD throughout the day.
ABSTRACT To examine duration of efficacy in long-acting stimulant treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in clinical trials using analog classroom protocols.
Published reports of clinical trials examining duration of medication efficacy using analog classroom protocols were identified in a systematic literature search of PubMed, BIOSYS, and EMBASE, through June 2009 using combinations of terms: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity, stimulant, methylphenidate (MPH), amphetamine, laboratory school or classroom, analog classroom, math test, and Permanent Product Measure of Performance (PERMP). Reports of short-acting, nonoral or nonstimulant formulations, or inadequate data on duration of efficacy were excluded.
Main outcomes examined were PERMP scores for number of math problems attempted (PERMP-A) and correctly answered (PERMP-C) based on a standard 10-minute math test given at regular intervals during the postdose period.
Fifteen trials were included in the analysis. All except one trial in adults (18-55 years) were conducted in children with ADHD (6-15 years) and employed randomized, double- or single-blind, placebo-controlled designs. Duration of efficacy, based on PERMP-A/-C scores (vs. placebo), ranged from 8 hours with long-acting MPH to 14 hours with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate; most formulations exerted therapeutic effects for 12 hours after a single morning dose. Duration of efficacy assessment may be limited by duration of observation (12 hours postdose for most studies). Outcomes may have been influenced by differences in study designs, population characteristics, lack of comparable, equivalent dosages of different extended-release stimulants, and limited ability to extrapolate safety and tolerability from short-term studies to long-term clinical use. Results from cross-study comparisons must be interpreted with caution.
Most long-acting stimulants exerted beneficial effects on ADHD symptoms for up to 12 hours as measured by the PERMP; the longest duration of efficacy versus placebo was seen with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (14 hours postdose).
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ABSTRACT: Objectives : This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of Metadate CD (MCD) when given to Korean children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We also explored the effects of the drug on diverse neuro-cognitive functions. Methods : Ninety-one subjects with ADHD (mean age 8.62.2 years) were recruited at 6 outpatient clinics in Seoul, Korea. We used the ADHD Rating Scale (ARS), Clinical Global Impression (CGI), and comprehensive attention test (CAT) to measure the drug's effects. Results : After 0.920.32mg/kg/day of MCD were administered for 57.47.6 days, there was a 48.5% reduction in the mean total ARS scores (pJournal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 12/2011; 22(4).
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ABSTRACT: Long-acting medications have been developed and approved for use in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). These compounds are intended to optimize and maintain symptoms control throughout the day. We tested prolonged effects of osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate on both attention and inhibition, in the late afternoon. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 36 boys (7-12 years) with ADHD and 40 typically developing children. The ADHD children received an individualized dose of placebo or osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate. They were tested about 8 hours after taking with 2 continuous performance tests (continuous performance test–X [CPT-X] and continuous performance test–AX [CPT-AX]) and a counting Stroop. A positive effect of osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate was present in CPT-AX with faster and less variable reaction times under osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate than under placebo, and no difference with typically developing children. In the counting Stroop, we found a decreased interference with osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate but no difference between children with ADHD under placebo and typically developing children.Journal of Child Neurology 10/2014; · 1.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders defined by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Symptoms begin in childhood and may persist into adolescence and adulthood. Currently available pharmacological treatment options for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents include stimulants that are efficacious and well tolerated; however, many of these preparations require multiple daily dosing and have the potential for abuse. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, the first prodrug stimulant, was developed to provide a longer duration of effect. It demonstrates a predictable delivery of the active drug, d-amphetamine, with low interpatient variability, and has a reduced potential for abuse. A literature search of the MEDLINE database and clinical trials register from 1995-2011, as well as relevant abstracts presented at annual professional meetings, on lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in children and adolescents were included for review. This article presents the pharmacokinetic profile, efficacy, and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and, more recently, in adolescents.Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics 01/2012; 3:51-66.