The phenotypic expression of QTLs for partial resistance to barley leaf rust during plant development

Laboratory of Photosynthesis and Environmental Molecular Physiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiangshan Nanxincun 20, Beijing, 100093, China.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics (Impact Factor: 3.51). 09/2010; 121(5):857-64. DOI: 10.1007/s00122-010-1355-0
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Partial resistance is generally considered to be a durable form of resistance. In barley, Rphq2, Rphq3 and Rphq4 have been identified as consistent quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for partial resistance to the barley leaf rust pathogen Puccinia hordei. These QTLs have been incorporated separately into the susceptible L94 and the partially resistant Vada barley genetic backgrounds to obtain two sets of near isogenic lines (NILs). Previous studies have shown that these QTLs are not effective at conferring disease resistance in all stages of plant development. In the present study, the two sets of QTL-NILs and the two recurrent parents, L94 and Vada, were evaluated for resistance to P. hordei isolate 1.2.1 simultaneously under greenhouse conditions from the first leaf to the flag leaf stage. Effect of the QTLs on resistance was measured by development rate of the pathogen, expressed as latency period (LP). The data show that Rphq2 prolongs LP at the seedling stage (the first and second leaf stages) but has almost no effect on disease resistance in adult plants. Rphq4 showed no effect on LP until the third leaf stage, whereas Rphq3 is consistently effective at prolonging LP from the first leaf to the flag leaf. The changes in the effectiveness of Rphq2 and Rphq4 happen at the barley tillering stage (the third to fourth leaf stages). These results indicate that multiple disease evaluations of a single plant by repeated inoculations of the fourth leaf to the flag leaf should be conducted to precisely estimate the effect of Rphq4. The present study confirms and describes in detail the plant development-dependent effectiveness of partial resistance genes and, consequently, will enable a more precise evaluation of partial resistance regulation during barley development.

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Available from: Xiaoquan Qi, Sep 03, 2015
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    • "In the substitution mapping study of individual introgression segments 8.2, 2.2 and 4.2, similar plant stage dependence and complex inheritance, based on interactions between sub-QTls or possibly CnVs, was observed (den Boer et al. 2013). Plant stage-dependent effectiveness of partial resistance genes has also been reported in other plant pathosystems like in barley-rust and barley-powdery mildew (Aghnoum et al. 2009; Wang et al. 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: In a stacking study of eight resistance QTLs in lettuce against downy mildew, only three out of ten double combinations showed an increased resistance effect under field conditions. Complete race nonspecific resistance to lettuce downy mildew, as observed for the nonhost wild lettuce species Lactuca saligna, is desired in lettuce cultivation. Genetic dissection of L. saligna's complete resistance has revealed several quantitative loci (QTL) for resistance with field infection reductions of 30-50 %. To test the effect of stacking these QTL, we analyzed interactions between homozygous L. saligna CGN05271 chromosome segments introgressed into the genetic background of L. sativa cv. Olof. Eight different backcross inbred lines (BILs) with single introgressions of 30-70 cM and selected predominately for quantitative resistance in field situations were intercrossed. Ten developed homozygous lines with stacked introgression segments (double combinations) were evaluated for resistance in the field. Seven double combinations showed a similar infection as the individual most resistant parental BIL, revealing epistatic interactions with 'less-than-additive' effects. Three double combinations showed an increased resistance level compared to their parental BILs and their interactions were additive, 'less-than-additive' epistatic and 'more-than-additive' epistatic, respectively. The additive interaction reduced field infection by 73 %. The double combination with a 'more-than-additive' epistatic effect, derived from a combination between a susceptible and a resistant BIL with 0 and 30 % infection reduction, respectively, showed an average field infection reduction of 52 %. For the latter line, an attempt to genetically dissect its underlying epistatic loci by substitution mapping did not result in smaller mapping intervals as none of the 22 substitution lines reached a similar high resistance level. Implications for breeding and the inheritance of L. saligna's complete resistance are discussed.
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics 06/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00122-014-2342-7 · 3.51 Impact Factor
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    • "The detection of plant stage dependent sub-QTLs within the three BIL introgression segments corresponds with the result of the set of 29 BILs within the whole lettuce genome, in which the majority of the 15 resistant BILs showed plant stage dependent resistance (Zhang et al. 2009a). Developmental plant stage dependent quantitative resistance has been found in multiple studies, in multiple plant species (Castro et al. 2002; Eenink and Jong 1982; Mallard et al. 2005; Monteiro et al. 2005; Prioul et al. 2004; Qi et al. 1998; Wang et al. 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Three regions with quantitative resistance to downy mildew of non-host and wild lettuce species, Lactuca saligna , disintegrate into seventeen sub-QTLs with plant-stage-dependent effects, reducing or even promoting the infection. Previous studies on the genetic dissection of the complete resistance of wild lettuce, Lactuca saligna, to downy mildew revealed 15 introgression regions that conferred plant stage dependent quantitative resistances (QTLs). Three backcross inbred lines (BILs), carrying an individual 30-50 cM long introgression segment from L. saligna in a cultivated lettuce, L. sativa, background, reduced infection by 60-70 % at young plant stage and by 30-50 % at adult plant stage in field situations. We studied these three quantitative resistances in order to narrow down their mapping interval and determine their number of loci, either single or multiple. We performed recombinant screenings and developed near isogenic lines (NILs) with smaller overlapping L. saligna introgressions (substitution mapping). In segregating introgression line populations, recombination was suppressed up to 17-fold compared to the original L. saligna × L. sativa F 2 population. Recombination suppression depended on the chromosome region and was stronger suppressed at the smallest introgression lengths. Disease evaluation of the NILs revealed that the resistance of all three BILs was not explained by a single locus but by multiple sub-QTLs. The 17 L. saligna-derived sub-QTLs had a smaller and plant stage dependent resistance effect, some segments reducing; others even promoting downy mildew infection. Implications for lettuce breeding are outlined.
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics 09/2013; 126(12). DOI:10.1007/s00122-013-2188-4 · 3.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Race-nonspecific and durable resistance of plant genotypes to major pathogens is highly relevant for yield stability and sustainable crop production but difficult to handle in practice due to its polygenic inheritance by quantitative trait loci (QTL). As far as the underlying genes are concerned, very little is currently known in the most important crop plants such as the cereals. Here, we integrated publicly available data for barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare) in order to detect the most important genomic regions for QTL-mediated resistance to a number of fungal pathogens and localize specific functional groups of genes within these regions. This identified 20 meta-QTL, including eight hot spots for resistance to multiple diseases that were distributed over all chromosomes. At least one meta-QTL region for resistance to the powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis was found to be co-linear between barley and wheat, suggesting partial evolutionary conservation. Large-scale genetic mapping revealed that functional groups of barley genes involved in secretory processes and cell-wall reinforcement were significantly over-represented within QTL for resistance to powdery mildew. Overall, the results demonstrate added value resulting from large-scale genetic and genomic data integration and may inform genomic-selection procedures for race-nonspecific and durable disease resistance in barley.
    Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 07/2011; 24(12):1492-501. DOI:10.1094/MPMI-05-11-0107 · 4.46 Impact Factor
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