Radiological Reasoning: 88-Year-Old Man With Abdominal Pain and Dilated Biliary Tree and Pancreatic Duct

Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Abdominal Imaging Division, University of California, San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Ave., Box 0628, M-372, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628, USA.
American Journal of Roentgenology (Impact Factor: 2.74). 06/2010; 194(6 Suppl):S46-50. DOI: 10.2214/AJR.07.7058
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Objective Marked intra- and extrahepatic biliary ductal dilatation and a questionable pancreatic mass were incidentally discovered on CT of an 88-year-old man. The most important diseases to be considered in this case scenario are pancreatic adenocarcinoma, ampullary carcinoma, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), and chronic pancreatitis. We will focus our review on the dilatation of the biliary and pancreatic ducts and assess each entity separately. Conclusion In patients with IPMN, findings that suggest malignancy include the presence of mural nodules, especially those measuring 5 mm or more in diameter; thickened and irregular cyst walls or septa; marked diffuse dilatation of the main pancreatic duct; and ductal diameter equal to or greater than 30 mm.

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    ABSTRACT: To update the authors' experience with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas. IPMNs are intraductal mucin-producing cystic neoplasms of the pancreas with clear malignant potential. Since the authors' 2001 report, the number of IPMNs resected at our institution has more than doubled, providing an opportunity to define the clinical features of this distinct neoplasm. All patients undergoing pancreatic resection for an IPMN at the Johns Hopkins Hospital between January 1987 and March 2003 were evaluated. Noninvasive IPMNs were classified as "adenoma," "borderline," or "carcinoma-in situ" (CIS) depending on the degree of dysplasia within the specimen. Invasive cancers were classified as tubular, colloid, mixed, or anaplastic types. Pathology was retrospectively reviewed to identify main-duct or branch-duct origin of the tumors. Long-term overall survival for patients having IPMNs with invasive cancer was compared with those patients having IPMNs without an invasive component. Between January 1987 and March 2003, inclusive, 136 pancreatic resections were performed for patients with IPMNs, with 78 resections performed since January 2001. The mean age of the patients was 66.8 +/- 1.1 years, with 57% being male and 89% white. Pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed in 71% of patients, total pancreatectomy in 15%, distal pancreatectomy in 12%, and central pancreatic resection in 2%. IPMNs without evidence of invasive cancer were identified in 62% (n = 84) of patients (17% adenoma, 28% borderline, or 55% CIS). The remaining 38% (n = 52) of patients had IPMNs with associated invasive cancer (60% tubular, 27% colloid, 7% mixed, and 6% anaplastic). The mean age of patients with IPMN adenoma was 63.2 years, 66.7 years for those with borderline/CIS IPMNs, and 68.1 years for those with invasive cancer (P = 0.08, adenomas vs. invasive cancer). In those patients with invasive cancers, 15% had invasive cancer at the final surgical margin, 23% had IPMN without invasive cancer at the margin, and 54% had lymph node metastases. Residual IPMN was identified at the neck or uncinate margin in 24% of patients with noninvasive IPMNs. The overall 5-year survival for patients having IPMNs without invasive cancer was 77% (several deaths secondary to metachronous invasive cancer), compared with 43% in those patients with an invasive component (P < 0.0001). There were no differences in survival when comparing adenomas, borderline neoplasms, and CIS. Similarly, there were no statistically significant differences in survival when comparing branch-duct, main-duct, and combined variants; however, the branch-duct variants were more often noninvasive. For those patients with invasive IPMNs, 2-year survival was 40% when margins were positive for invasive cancer or for IPMN without invasive cancer, and 60% when margins were tumor-free (P = 0.15). Those patients with colloid carcinomas (n = 14) had improved survival compared with those with tubular carcinomas (n = 31), with 5-year survival rates of 83% and 24%, respectively. IPMN recurrences and deaths from cancer occurred in patients with both invasive and noninvasive IPMNs at initial resection. IPMNs continue to be recognized with increasing frequency. Five-year survival for those patients following resection of IPMNs with invasive cancer (43%) is improved compared with those patients with resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in the absence of IPMN (averages 15%-25%). Survival following resection of IPMNs without invasive cancer (regardless of degree of dyplasia) is good, but recurrent disease in the residual pancreas suggests that long-term surveillance is critical. Based on the age at resection data, there appears to be a 5-year lag time from IPMN adenoma (63.2 years) to invasive cancer (68.1 years).
    Annals of Surgery 06/2004; 239(6):788-97; discussion 797-9. DOI:10.1097/01.sla.0000128306.90650.aa · 8.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe clinical characteristics and outcomes of a large cohort of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas affecting the main pancreatic duct. IPMNs are being diagnosed with increasing frequency. Preoperative determination of malignancy remains problematic, and reported results of long-term survival following resection are conflicting. The combined databases from the Massachusetts General Hospital and the Pancreatic Unit of the University of Verona were analyzed. To avoid confusing overlap with mucinous cystic neoplasms, only patients with tumors of the main pancreatic duct (with or without side branch involvement) were included. A total of 140 tumors consecutively resected between 1990 and 2002 were classified as either benign (adenoma and borderline tumors) or malignant (carcinoma in situ or invasive cancer) to compare their characteristics and survival. Men and women were equally affected (mean age 65 years). Seven patients (12%) had adenomas, 40 (28%) borderline tumors, 25 (18%) carcinoma in situ, and 58 (42%) invasive carcinoma. The median age of patients with benign IPMN was 6.4 years younger than those with malignant tumors (P = 0.04). The principal symptoms were abdominal pain (65%), weight loss (44%), acute pancreatitis (23%), jaundice (17%), and onset or worsening of diabetes (12%); 27% of patients were asymptomatic. Jaundice and diabetes were significantly associated with malignant tumors. Five- and 10-year cancer-specific survival for patients with noninvasive tumors was 100%, and comparable survival of the 58 patients with invasive carcinoma was 60% and 50%. Cancer is found in 60% of patients with main-duct IPMNs. Patients with malignant tumors are 6 years older than their benign counterparts and have a higher likelihood of presenting with jaundice or new onset diabetes. No patients with benign tumors or carcinoma in situ died of their disease following resection, and those with invasive cancer had a markedly better survival (60% at 5 years) than pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. These findings support both the concept of progression of benign IPMNs to invasive cancer and an aggressive policy of resection at diagnosis.
    Annals of Surgery 06/2004; 239(5):678-85; discussion 685-7. · 8.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although general characteristics of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) and their delineation from other pancreatic tumors have been well established, several issues regarding their biology and management remain unresolved. It has been noted briefly by us and other authors that there are different types of papillae in IPMNs; however, their frequency, biologic significance, and clinical relevance are unknown. In this study, the association of different papillary patterns with clinical, pathologic, and biologic parameters was studied in 74 IPMNs, and the expression profile of CDX2 (a specific marker and one of the key determinants of intestinal "programming," and a tumor suppressor) was determined immunohistochemically in addition to MUC1 (a marker of an "aggressive" phenotype in pancreatic neoplasia) and MUC2 ("intestinal type mucin," a marker of the "indolent" phenotype, and a tumor suppressor). The patterns of papillae identified and their association with these parameters were as follows: 1) The intestinal-type (Yonezawa's dark-cell type), similar to villous adenomas, was seen in 26 of 74 (35%) cases. The majority harbored carcinoma in situ (85%) or borderline atypia (15%). They tended to be large (mean, 5.5 cm). Most expressed CDX2 (95%) and MUC2 (92%) but not MUC1 (8%). This type was more commonly associated with colloid-type invasion (14 of 16 invasive carcinomas were of colloid type). 2) The pancreatobiliary type, characterized by arborizing papillae lined by cuboidal cells resembling papillary neoplasms of the biliary tract, was present in 22% of the cases. These were mostly graded as carcinoma in situ (94%); they rarely expressed CDX2 (6%) or MUC2 (19%) but often showed MUC1 labeling (44%). This pattern was more commonly associated with the tubular type of invasive carcinoma and had a slight tendency for a more aggressive clinical course. 3) The null type was characterized by abundant apical mucin and basally located nuclei, similar to the gastric foveolar epithelium. Thirty-one percent of IPMNs had this type of papillae, but this pattern was also present in the background of other IPMNs and in the cystic components of most cases as well. Most pure null-type IPMNs were devoid of complexity and consequently classified as adenoma (48%). They tended to be small (mean, 2.6 cm), were often negative for CDX2, MUC1, and MUC2, and were rarely associated with invasive carcinoma. 4) Some IPMNs (12%) exhibited features that were difficult to classify, and 2 cases had a mixture of pancreatobiliary and intestinal types of papillae. In conclusion, IPMNs include pathologically and biologically distinct epithelial patterns. CDX2 and MUC2 expression is relatively specific for the intestinal type papillae, confirming that these IPMNs indeed exhibit intestinal differentiation. Their close association with colloid carcinoma, which also shows consistent MUC2 and CDX2 expression, supports the existence of an intestinal pathway of carcinogenesis. This "metaplastic" pathway may reflect different genetic events in the development of these IPMNs, and the presence of intestinal differentiation may potentially be used in prognostication and stratification of patients into appropriate treatment categories.
    American Journal of Surgical Pathology 08/2004; 28(7):839-48. DOI:10.1097/00000478-200407000-00001 · 4.59 Impact Factor
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