Septopreoptic Holoprosencephaly: A Mild Subtype Associated with Midline Craniofacial Anomalies

Department of Neurology, Medical Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305-5235, USA.
American Journal of Neuroradiology (Impact Factor: 3.59). 10/2010; 31(9):1596-601. DOI: 10.3174/ajnr.A2123
Source: PubMed


SUMMARY: HPE is a congenital brain malformation characterized by failure of the prosencephalon to divide into 2 hemispheres. We have identified 7 patients who have a mild subtype of HPE in which the midline fusion was restricted to the septal region or preoptic region of the telencephalon. This subtype, which we call septopreoptic HPE, falls in the spectrum of lobar HPE, but lacks significant frontal neocortical fusion seen in lobar HPE. Other imaging characteristics include thickened or dysplastic fornix, absent or hypoplastic anterior CC, and single unpaired ACA. The SP was fully formed in 4, partially formed in 2, and absent in 1. Mild midline craniofacial malformation, such as SMMCI and CNPAS were found in 86% and 71%, respectively. Patients outside of infancy often manifested language delay, learning disabilities, or behavioral disturbances, while motor function was relatively spared.

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    ABSTRACT: This review presents recent advances in our understanding and clinical management of holoprosencephaly (HPE). HPE is the most common developmental disorder of the human forebrain and involves incomplete or failed separation of the cerebral hemispheres. The epidemiology, clinical features, causes, diagnostic approach, management, and outcomes of HPE are discussed. Chromosomal abnormalities account for the most commonly identified cause of HPE. However, there are often unidentifiable causes in patients with nonsyndromic, nonchromosomal forms of HPE. The prevalence of HPE may be underestimated given that patients with mild forms often are not diagnosed until they present with severely affected children. Pregestational maternal diabetes mellitus is the most recognized risk factor for HPE, as supported by recent large-scale epidemiological studies. Genetic studies using microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization technology have resulted in better characterization of important HPE loci. HPE encompasses a wide spectrum of forebrain and midline defects, with an accompanying wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. A coordinated, multidisciplinary care team is required for clinical management of this complex disorder. Further research will enable us to better understand the pathogenesis and causes of HPE, and thus to improve the genetic counseling of patients and their families.
    Current opinion in pediatrics 12/2010; 22(6):687-95. DOI:10.1097/MOP.0b013e32833f56d5 · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Holoprosencephaly (HPE), which results from failed or incomplete midline forebrain division early in gestation, is the most common forebrain malformation. The etiology of HPE is complex and multifactorial. To date, at least 12 HPE-associated genes have been identified, including TGIF (transforming growth factor beta-induced factor), located on chromosome 18p11.3. TGIF encodes a transcriptional repressor of retinoid responses involved in TGF-β signaling regulation, including Nodal signaling. TGIF mutations are reported in approximately 1–2% of patients with non-syndromic, non-chromosomal HPE.We combined data from our comprehensive studies of HPE with a literature search for all individuals with HPE and evidence of mutations affecting TGIF in order to establish the genotypic and phenotypic range. We describe 2 groups of patients: 34 with intragenic mutations and 21 with deletions of TGIF. These individuals, which were ascertained from our research group, in collaboration with other centers, and through a literature search, include 38 probands and 17 mutation-positive relatives. The majority of intragenic mutations occur in the TGIF homeodomain. Patients with mutations affecting TGIFrecapitulate the entire phenotypic spectrum observed in non-chromosomal, non-syndromic HPE. We identified a statistically significant difference between the 2 groups with respect to inheritance, as TGIF deletions were more likely to be de novo in comparison to TGIF mutations (χ2(2) = 6.97, ppermutated = 0.0356). In addition, patients with TGIF deletions were also found to more commonly present with manifestations beyond the craniofacial and neuroanatomical features associated with HPE (p = 0.0030). These findings highlight differences in patients with intragenic mutations versus deletions affecting TGIF, and draw attention to the homeodomain region, which appears to be particularly relevant to HPE. These results may be useful for genetic counseling of affected patients.
    Molecular syndromology 05/2011; 1(5):211-222. DOI:10.1159/000328203
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    ABSTRACT: Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most common forebrain defect in humans. It results from incomplete midline cleavage of the prosencephalon. A large European series of 645 HPE probands (and 699 relatives), consisting of 51% fetuses and 49% liveborn children, is reported. Mutations in the four main genes involved in HPE (SHH, ZIC2, SIX3, TGIF) were identified in 25% of cases. The SHH, SIX3, and TGIF mutations were inherited in more than 70% of these cases, whereas 70% of the mutations in ZIC2 occurred de novo. Moreover, rearrangements were detected in 22% of the 260 patients screened by array comparative genomic hybridisation. 15 probands had two mutations providing additional support for the 'multiple-hit process' in HPE. There was a positive correlation between the severity of the brain malformation and facial features for SHH, SIX3, and TGIF, but no such correlation was found for ZIC2 mutations. The most severe HPE types were associated with SIX3 and ZIC2 mutations, whereas microforms were associated with SHH mutations. The study focused on the associated brain malformations, including neuronal migration defects, which predominated in individuals with ZIC2 mutations, and neural tube defects, which were frequently associated with ZIC2 (rachischisis) and TGIF mutations. Extracraniofacial features were observed in 27% of the individuals in this series (up to 40% of those with ZIC2 mutations) and a significant correlation was found between renal/urinary defects and mutations of SHH and ZIC2. An algorithm is proposed based on these new phenotype-genotype correlations, to facilitate molecular analysis and genetic counselling for HPE.
    Journal of Medical Genetics 09/2011; 48(11):752-60. DOI:10.1136/jmedgenet-2011-100339 · 6.34 Impact Factor
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