All-atom structural models for complexes of insulin-like growth factors IGF1 and IGF2 with their cognate receptor.
ABSTRACT Type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) is a membrane-spanning glycoprotein of the insulin receptor family that has been implicated in a variety of cancers. The key questions related to molecular mechanisms governing ligand recognition by IGF1R remain unanswered, partly due to the lack of testable structural models of apo or ligand-bound receptor complexes. Using a homology model of the IGF1R ectodomain IGF1RDeltabeta, we present the first experimentally consistent all-atom structural models of IGF1/IGF1RDeltabeta and IGF2/IGF1RDeltabeta complexes. Our explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of apo-IGF1RDeltabeta shows that it displays asymmetric flexibility mechanisms that result in one of two binding pockets accessible to growth factors IGF1 and IGF2, as demonstrated via an MD-assisted Monte Carlo docking procedure. Our MD-generated ensemble of structures of apo and IGF1-bound IGF1RDeltabeta agrees reasonably well with published small-angle X-ray scattering data. We observe simultaneous contacts of each growth factor with sites 1 and 2 of IGF1R, suggesting cross-linking of receptor subunits. Our models provide direct evidence in favor of suggested electrostatic complementarity between the C-domain (IGF1) and the cysteine-rich domain (IGF1R). Our IGF1/IGF1RDeltabeta model provides structural bases for the observation that a single IGF1 molecule binds to IGF1RDeltabeta at low concentrations in small-angle X-ray scattering studies. We also suggest new possible structural bases for differences in the affinities of insulin, IGF1, and IGF2 for their noncognate receptors.
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ABSTRACT: Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) plays an important role in tissue growth and development. Several studies have demonstrated the association between circulating levels of IGF-1 and -2 and cancer risk, and the IGF system has been implicated in the oncogenesis of essentially all solid and hematologic malignancies. The optimal strategy for targeting IGF signaling in patients with cancer is not clear. The modest benefits reported thus far underscore the need for a better understanding of IGF signaling, which would enable clinicians to identify the subset of patients with the greatest likelihood of attaining benefit from this targeted approach.Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America 06/2012; 41(2):335-50, vi. · 3.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Several decades of basic and clinical research have demonstrated that there is an association between the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and neoplasia. We begin with a brief discussion of the function and regulation of expression of the IGFs, their receptors and the IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs). A number of investigational interventional strategies targeting the GH or IGFs are then reviewed. Finally, we have assembled the available scientific knowledge about this relationship for each of the major tumor types. The tumors have been grouped together by organ system and for each of the major tumors, various key elements of the relationship between IGFs and tumor growth are discussed. Specifically these include the presence or absence of autocrine IGF-I and IGF-II production; presence or absence of IGF-I and IGF-II receptor expression; the expression and functions of the IGFBPs; in vitro and in vivo experiments involving therapeutic interventions; and available results from clinical trials evaluating the effect of GH/IGF axis down-regulation in various malignancies.Endocrine Reviews 07/2000; 21(3):215-44. · 14.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Insulin and the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) bind with high affinity to their cognate receptor and with lower affinity to the noncognate receptor. The major structural difference between insulin and the IGFs is that the IGFs are single chain polypeptides containing A-, B-, C-, and D-domains, whereas the insulin molecule contains separate A- and B-chains. The C-domain of IGF-I is critical for high affinity binding to the insulin-like growth factor I receptor, and lack of a C-domain largely explains the low affinity of insulin for the insulin-like growth factor I receptor. It is less clear why the IGFs have lower affinity for the insulin receptor. In this study, 24 insulin analogues and four IGF analogues were expressed and analyzed to explore the role of amino acid differences in the A- and B-domains between insulin and the IGFs in binding affinity for the insulin receptor. Using the information obtained from single substituted analogues, four multiple substituted analogues were produced. A "quadruple insulin" analogue ([Phe(A8), Ser(A10), Thr(B5), Gln(B16)]Ins) showed affinity as IGF-I for the insulin receptor, and a "sextuple insulin" analogue ([Phe(A8), Ser(A10), Thr(A18), Thr(B5), Thr(B14), Gln(B16)]Ins) showed an affinity close to that of IGF-II for the insulin receptor, whereas a "quadruple IGF-I" analogue ([His(4), Tyr(15), Thr(49), Ile(51)]IGF-I) and a "sextuple IGF-II" analogue ([His(7), Ala(16), Tyr(18), Thr(48), Ile(50), Asn(58)]IGF-II) showed affinities similar to that of insulin for the insulin receptor. The mitogenic potency of these analogues correlated well with the binding properties. Thus, a small number of A- and B-domain substitutions that map to the IGF surface equivalent to the classical binding surface of insulin weaken two hotspots that bind to the insulin receptor site 1.Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2008; 283(5):2604-13. · 4.65 Impact Factor