Effects of morroniside isolated from Corni Fructus on renal lipids and inflammation in type 2 diabetic mice.
ABSTRACT The effects of morroniside isolated from Corni Fructus on renal lipids and inflammation provoked by hyperglycaemia were investigated using type 2 diabetic mice.
Morroniside was administered orally to db/db mice at 20 or 100 mg/kg daily for 8 weeks, and its effects were compared with those in vehicle-treated db/db and m/m (non-diabetic) mice. Serum and renal biochemical factors and protein expression related to lipid homeostasis and inflammation were measured.
Morroniside produced significant dose-dependent reductions in serum triglyceride and renal glucose and lipid levels. Morroniside altered the abnormal protein expression of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBP-1 and SREBP-2). In addition, the formation of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation were inhibited in the morroniside-treated db/db mouse group, and the ratio of reduced glutathione to the oxidised form was significantly elevated. These results suggest that morroniside alleviated oxidative stress in the kidneys of db/db mice. Furthermore, 100 mg/kg morroniside down-regulated the expression of nuclear factor-kappaBp65, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase augmented in db/db mice.
Morroniside may inhibit abnormal lipid metabolism and inflammation due to reactive oxygen species in the kidneys in type 2 diabetes.
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ABSTRACT: Inflammation is a manifestation of a wide range of disorders which include; arthritis, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, inflammatory bowel syndrome, physical injury and infection amongst many others. Common treatment modalities are usually nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, paracetamol, indomethacin and ibuprofen as well as corticosteroids such as prednisone. These however, may be associated with a host of side effects due to non-selectivity for cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes involved in inflammation and those with selectivity may be highly priced. Thus, there is a continuing search for safe and effective antiinflammatory molecules from natural sources. Research has confirmed that iridoids exhibit promising anti-inflammatory activity which may be beneficial in the treatment of inflammation. Iridoids are secondary metabolites present in various plants, especially in species belonging to the Apocynaceae, Lamiaceae, Loganiaceae, Rubiaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Verbenaceae families. Many of these ethnobotanicals have an illustrious history of traditional use alluding to their use to treat inflammation. Although iridoids exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities such as cardiovascular, hepatoprotection, hypoglycaemic, antimutagenic, antispasmodic, anti-tumour, antiviral, immunomodulation and purgative effects this review will acutely focus on their anti-inflammatory properties. The paper aims to present a summary for the most prominent iridoid-containing plants for which anti-inflammatory activity has been demonstrated in vitro and / or in vivo.Current Medicinal Chemistry 03/2012; 19(14):2104-27. · 4.86 Impact Factor