Inhibition of neointimal formation by trans-resveratrol: role of phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase-dependent Nrf2 activation in heme oxygenase-1 induction.
ABSTRACT Neointima, defined as abnormal growth of the intimal layer of blood vessels, is believed to be a critical event in the development of vascular occlusive disease. Although resveratrol's inhibitory effects on proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells has been reported, its activity on neointimal formation is still unclear. Oral administration of trans-resveratrol significantly suppressed intimal hyperplasia in a wire-injured femoral artery mouse model. In cultured vascular smooth muscle cells, trans-resveratrol inhibited platelet-derived growth factor-stimulated DNA synthesis and cell proliferation with down-regulation of cyclin D and pRB. Moreover, platelet-derived growth factor-induced production of reactive oxygen species was inhibited by trans-resveratrol and the compound induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). The anti-proliferative activity of trans-resveratrol was reversed by an HO-1 inhibitor, ZnPPIX. Subcellular fractionation and reporter gene analyses revealed that trans-resveratrol increased the level of nuclear Nrf2 and antioxidant response element reporter activity, and that these were essential for the induction of HO-1. Trans-resveratrol also enhanced the activities of phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase and extracellular signal regulated kinase, and phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase was required for Nrf2/antioxidant response element-dependent HO-1 induction. These data have significant implications for the elucidation of the pharmacological mechanism by which trans-resveratrol prevents vascular occlusive diseases.
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ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arteries resulting from interactions between lipids, monocytes, and arterial wall cells. The effects of resveratrol supplements (RV, 0.02% and 0.06% each, w/w) with regard to the modulation of lipid profiles, cholesterol synthesis, and anti-atherogenesis were examined in apo E-deficient (apo E(-/-)) mice fed a normal diet. The concentration of total-cholesterol (total-C) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) in plasma was significantly lower in the resveratrol-supplemented groups compare to the control group over the entire experimental period. The plasma HDL-C concentration was significantly elevated, and the ratio of HDL-C/total-C was significantly higher in the CF and RV groups than in the control group. Plasma paraoxonase (PON) activity was significantly higher in the 0.06% resveratrol group. The hepatic HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) activity was significantly lower in the clofibrate and resveratrol groups than in the control group. Resveratrol supplements attenuated the presence of atherosclerotic lesions and periarterial fat deposition in the apo E(-/-) mice. The presence of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in atherosclerotic vessels was diminished in the resveratrol-supplemented apo E(-/-) mice. These results provide new insight into the anti-atherogenic and hypocholesterolemic properties of resveratrol in apo E(-/-) mice that were fed a normal diet.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 08/2008; 374(1):55-9. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Plant-derived polyphenolic compounds, such as the stilbene resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene), have been identified as potent anti-cancer agents. Extensive in vitro studies revealed multiple intracellular targets of resveratrol, which affect cell growth, inflammation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and invasion and metastasis. These include tumor suppressors p53 and Rb; cell cycle regulators, cyclins, CDKs, p21WAF1, p27KIP and INK and the checkpoint kinases ATM/ATR; transcription factors NF-kappaB, AP-1, c-Jun, and c-Fos; angiogenic and metastatic factors, VEGF and matrix metalloprotease 2/9; cyclooxygenases for inflammation; and apoptotic and survival regulators, Bax, Bak, PUMA, Noxa, TRAIL, APAF, survivin, Akt, Bcl2 and Bcl-X(L). In addition to its well-documented anti-oxidant properties, there is increasing evidence that resveratrol exhibits pro-oxidant activity under certain experimental conditions, causing oxidative DNA damage that may lead to cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. This review summarizes in vitro mechanistic data available for resveratrol and discusses new potential anti-cancer targets and the antiproliferative mechanisms of resveratrol.Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 07/2009; 486(2):95-102. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Extracellular acidosis (EA) regulates Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in vascular smooth muscle cells via transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms but the signaling pathways involved are not known. We examined the role of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) pathways in HO-1 regulation by EA. Primary rat aortic smooth muscle cells were exposed to EA or physiologic pH. Levels of the total and phosphorylated forms of p38, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinases/stress-activated protein kinases (JNK1/2), and HO-1 protein were assessed by Western analysis and HO-1 mRNA levels were assessed by quantitative PCR. Inhibition of p38 MAPK was achieved with the chemical inhibitor SB203580, or adenoviral infection of a dominant-negative form of p38alpha. Phospho p38 MAPK activity was evaluated with an in vitro kinase activity assay. Binding of Activator Protein-1 (AP-1), a known target of MAPK pathways, was assessed by Electromobility shift assay (EMSA). EA induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in a biphasic manner while total p38 was unchanged. EA did not alter levels of phospho ERK 1/2 and phospho JNK 1/2. There was increased phospho p38 MAPK activity in the setting of EA which preceded the induction of HO-1. Inhibition of phospho p38 activity with either SB20358 or a dominant negative p38alpha oligonucleotide abrogated the induction of HO-1 by EA. Increased specific binding of AP-1 in the setting of EA was shown by EMSA. Increased phospho p38 activity precedes and likely mediates HO-1 induction by EA. Increased AP-1 binding may underlie the transcriptional regulation of HO-1 by EA.Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 11/2008; 105(5):1298-306. · 3.06 Impact Factor