STX11 Mutations and Clinical Phenotypes of Familial Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis in North America
ABSTRACT Mutations in STX11 are responsible for Familial Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis (FHLH) type 4, a rare primary immunodeficiency which has previously been observed only in patients of Kurdish, Turkish, and Lebanese ethnic background.
We reviewed our experience with STX11 mutations among North American patients and studied the impact of patient mutations upon syntaxin 11 expression and NK cell function.
Between 2007 and 2008, 243 patients with HLH (lacking disease-causing mutations in PRF1 and UNC13D) were referred for STX11 mutational analysis. We observed 1 novel homozygous nonsense mutation, 73 G > T (E25X), occurring in Hispanic siblings, and 2 novel biallelic heterozygous missense mutations, 106G > C (E36Q) and 616G > A (E206K), occurring in 1 Caucasian patient. The N-terminal nonsense mutation resulted in absence of detectable syntaxin 11 and abrogation of in vitro NK cell degranulation and function, while the biallelic heterozygous missense mutations resulted in detectable mutated syntaxin 11 and preservation of in vitro NK cell degranulation and cytotoxicity. The two sibling patients with the nonsense mutations presented with HLH during infancy, whereas the patient with biallelic heterozygous missense mutations presented at 5 years of age.
We conclude that mutations in STX11 are responsible for HLH in approximately 1% of North American patients and can cause variable defects in syntaxin 11 expression and function with resultant impact on clinical phenotype.
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ABSTRACT: Natural killer (NK) cell secretory lysosome exocytosis and cytotoxicity are impaired in familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 4 (FHL-4), a disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding the SNARE protein syntaxin 11. We show that syntaxin 11 binds to SNAP23 in NK cells and that this interaction is reduced by FHL-4 truncation and frameshift mutation proteins that delete all or part of the SNARE domain of syntaxin 11. In contrast the FHL-4 mutant proteins bound to the Sec-1/Munc18-like (SM) protein Munc18-2. We demonstrate that the C-terminal cysteine rich region of syntaxin 11, which is deleted in the FHL-4 mutants, is S-acylated. This posttranslational modification is required for the membrane association of syntaxin 11 and for its polarization to the immunological synapse in NK cells conjugated to target cells. Moreover, we show that Munc18-2 is recruited by syntaxin 11 to intracellular membranes in resting NK cells and to the immunological synapse in activated NK cells. This recruitment of Munc18-2 is abolished by deletion of the C-terminal cysteine rich region of syntaxin 11. These results suggest a pivotal role for S-acylation in the function of syntaxin 11 in NK cells.PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e98900. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0098900 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The human immune system depends on the activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), natural killer (NK) cells, and NKT cells in order to fight off a viral infection. Understanding the molecular mechanisms during this process and the role of individual proteins was greatly improved by the study of familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL). Since 1999, genetic sequencing is the gold standard to classify patients into different subgroups of FHL. The diagnosis, once based on a clinical constellation of abnormalities, is now strongly supported by the results of a functional flow-cytometry screening, which directs the genetic study. A few additional congenital immune deficiencies can also cause a resembling or even identical clinical picture to FHL. As in many other rare human disorders, the collection and analysis of a relatively large number of cases in registries is crucial to draw a complete picture of the disease. The conduction of prospective therapeutic trials allows investigators to increase the awareness of the disease and to speed up the diagnostic process, but also provides important functional and genetic confirmations. Children with confirmed diagnosis may undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, which is the only cure known to date. Moreover, detailed characterization of these rare patients helped to understand the function of individual proteins within the exocytic machinery of CTL, NK, and NKT cells. Moreover, identification of these genotypes also provides valuable information on variant phenotypes, other than FHL, associated with biallelic and monoallelic mutations in the FHL-related genes. In this review, we describe how detailed characterization of patients with genetic hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis has resulted in improvement in knowledge regarding contribution of individual proteins to the functional machinery of cytotoxic T- and NK-cells. The review also details how identification of these genotypes has provided valuable information on variant phenotypes.Frontiers in Immunology 04/2014; 5:167. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00167
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ABSTRACT: Hemophagocytic syndrome, also known as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), is a heterogenic syndrome, which leads to an acute, life-threatening inflammatory reaction. HLH occurs both in children and adults, and can be triggered by various inherited as well as acquired factors. Depending on the etiology, HLH can be divided into genetic (i.e., primary) and acquired (i.e., secondary) forms. Among genetic HLH forms, one can distinguish between familial HLH and other genetically conditioned forms of HLH. Acquired HLH can be typically triggered by infections, autoimmune diseases, and malignancies. The most common symptoms of HLH are unremitting fever, splenomegaly, and peripheral blood cytopenia. Some severely ill patients present with central nervous system involvement. Laboratory tests reveal hyperferritinemia (often >10,000 μg/L), increased serum concentration of soluble receptor α for interleukin-2 (>2,400 U/L), hypertriglyceridemia, hypofibrinogenemia, coagulopathy, hyponatremia, hypoproteinemia, and elevated liver transaminases and bilirubin. Prognosis in HLH is very serious. Genetic HLH is always lethal if adequate therapy is not administered. Similarly, severe acquired cases often lead to death without appropriate treatment. Since HLH can be encountered by various specialists in the medical field, basic knowledge of this entity such as diagnostic criteria and treatment should be familiar to all physicians.Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis 02/2014; 62(5). DOI:10.1007/s00005-014-0274-1 · 2.82 Impact Factor