STX11 Mutations and Clinical Phenotypes of Familial Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis in North America
ABSTRACT Mutations in STX11 are responsible for Familial Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis (FHLH) type 4, a rare primary immunodeficiency which has previously been observed only in patients of Kurdish, Turkish, and Lebanese ethnic background.
We reviewed our experience with STX11 mutations among North American patients and studied the impact of patient mutations upon syntaxin 11 expression and NK cell function.
Between 2007 and 2008, 243 patients with HLH (lacking disease-causing mutations in PRF1 and UNC13D) were referred for STX11 mutational analysis. We observed 1 novel homozygous nonsense mutation, 73 G > T (E25X), occurring in Hispanic siblings, and 2 novel biallelic heterozygous missense mutations, 106G > C (E36Q) and 616G > A (E206K), occurring in 1 Caucasian patient. The N-terminal nonsense mutation resulted in absence of detectable syntaxin 11 and abrogation of in vitro NK cell degranulation and function, while the biallelic heterozygous missense mutations resulted in detectable mutated syntaxin 11 and preservation of in vitro NK cell degranulation and cytotoxicity. The two sibling patients with the nonsense mutations presented with HLH during infancy, whereas the patient with biallelic heterozygous missense mutations presented at 5 years of age.
We conclude that mutations in STX11 are responsible for HLH in approximately 1% of North American patients and can cause variable defects in syntaxin 11 expression and function with resultant impact on clinical phenotype.
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ABSTRACT: Hemophagocytic syndrome, also known as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), is a heterogenic syndrome, which leads to an acute, life-threatening inflammatory reaction. HLH occurs both in children and adults, and can be triggered by various inherited as well as acquired factors. Depending on the etiology, HLH can be divided into genetic (i.e., primary) and acquired (i.e., secondary) forms. Among genetic HLH forms, one can distinguish between familial HLH and other genetically conditioned forms of HLH. Acquired HLH can be typically triggered by infections, autoimmune diseases, and malignancies. The most common symptoms of HLH are unremitting fever, splenomegaly, and peripheral blood cytopenia. Some severely ill patients present with central nervous system involvement. Laboratory tests reveal hyperferritinemia (often >10,000 μg/L), increased serum concentration of soluble receptor α for interleukin-2 (>2,400 U/L), hypertriglyceridemia, hypofibrinogenemia, coagulopathy, hyponatremia, hypoproteinemia, and elevated liver transaminases and bilirubin. Prognosis in HLH is very serious. Genetic HLH is always lethal if adequate therapy is not administered. Similarly, severe acquired cases often lead to death without appropriate treatment. Since HLH can be encountered by various specialists in the medical field, basic knowledge of this entity such as diagnostic criteria and treatment should be familiar to all physicians.Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis 02/2014; 62(5). DOI:10.1007/s00005-014-0274-1 · 2.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a genetic disorder of lymphocyte cytotoxicity that usually presents in the first two years of life and has a poor prognosis unless treated by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Atypical courses with later onset and prolonged survival have been described, but no detailed analysis of immunological parameters associated with typical versus atypical forms of familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis has been performed. We analyzed disease manifestations, NK-cell and T-cell cytotoxicity and degranulation, markers of T-cell activation and B-cell differentiation as well as Natural Killer T cells in 8 patients with atypical familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis due to mutations in UNC13D and STXBP2. All but one patient with atypical familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis carried at least one splice-site mutation in UNC13D or STXBP2. In most patients episodes of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis were preceded or followed by clinical features typically associated with immunodeficiency, such as chronic active Epstein Barr virus infection, increased susceptibility to bacterial infections, granulomatous lung or liver disease, encephalitis or lymphoma. Five of 8 patients had hypogammaglobulinemia and reduced memory B cells. Most patients had a predominance of activated CD8(+) T cells and low numbers of Natural Killer T cells. When compared to patients with typical familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, NK-cell cytotoxicity and NK-cell and CTL degranulation were impaired to a similar extent. However, in patients with an atypical course NK-cell degranulation could be partially reconstituted by interleukin-2 and cytotoxic T-cell cytotoxicity in vitro was normal. Clinical and immunological features of atypical familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis show an important overlap to primary immunodeficiency diseases (particularly common variable immunodeficiency and X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome) and must, therefore, be considered in a variety of clinical presentations. We show that degranulation assays are helpful screening tests for the identification of such patients.Haematologica 12/2010; 95(12):2080-7. DOI:10.3324/haematol.2010.029389 · 5.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Passive acoustic and vibrometric methods were investigated for the detection and monitoring of changes in bed fluidity in a large scale gas–solid fluidized bed after liquid injection. Water was injected into a 9tonne air-fluidized bed of silica sand using an industrial nozzle and pre-mixer assembly. Acoustic signals were recorded using non-intrusive and externally mounted microphones. Vibration data was recorded using an accelerometer mounted to a rod inserted into the bed. The signals were analyzed offline using Fourier and wavelet analysis techniques. The average frequency of the acoustic and vibration measurements decreased as the bed solids dried while the standard deviation of the coefficients in the 10–20kHz band characterized from wavelet analysis increased during drying. Samples from the bed were taken and evaluated for flowability by measuring the median avalanche time with a Revolution Powder analyzer. Linear and power law regressions of the wavelet and Fourier analyzed vibration measurements provided a reliable correlation of the flowability of the bed solids and thus could be successfully used as a passive and real-time monitoring method of bed fluidity.Powder Technology 01/2011; 205(1):126-136. DOI:10.1016/j.powtec.2010.09.002 · 2.27 Impact Factor