Bacterial cystitis in women.

Department of Urology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, New South Wales, Australia.
Australian family physician (Impact Factor: 0.71). 05/2010; 39(5):295-8.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A woman presenting with symptoms suggestive of bacterial cystitis is a frequent occurrence in the general practice setting. One in three women develop a urinary tract infection (UTI) during their lifetime (compared to 1 in 20 men).
In this article we provide an outline of the aetiology, pathogenesis and treatment of bacterial cystitis in the primary care setting. We suggest measures that may assist before urological referral and work through a common clinical scenario.
Bacterial cystitis in unlikely if the urine is both nitrite and leuco-esterase negative. Empirical antibiotics are justified if symptoms are present with positive urinary dipstick, but microscopy, culture and sensitivity of urine is warranted to ensure appropriate empirical therapy and identification of the causative organism. Risk factors for UTI in women include sexual intercourse, use of contraceptive diaphragms and, in postmenopausal women, mechanical and/or physiologic factors that affect bladder emptying such as cystocoele or atrophic vaginitis. Discussion regarding risk factors and UTI prevention is important. Women with recurrent UTIs (defined as three or more episodes in 12 months or two or more episodes in 6 months) should be screened for an underlying urinary tract abnormality (ultrasound) and may benefit from prophylactic therapy. Patients with complex or recurrent UTIs, persistent haematuria, persistent asymptomatic bacteriuria, or urinary tract abnormalities on imaging may benefit from referral to a urologist.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: More than 350,000 new cases of bladder cancer are diagnosed worldwide each year; the vast majority (> 90%) of these are transitional cell carcinomas (TCC). The most important risk factors for the development of bladder cancer are smoking and occupational exposure to toxic chemicals. Painless visible haematuria is the most common presenting symptom of bladder cancer; significant haematuria requires referral to a specialist urology service. Cystoscopy and urine cytology are currently the recommended tools for diagnosis of bladder cancer. Excluding muscle invasion is an important diagnostic step, as outcomes for patients with muscle invasive TCC are less favourable. For non-muscle invasive bladder cancer, transurethral resection followed by intravesical chemotherapy (typically Mitomycin C or epirubicin) or immunotherapy [bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)] is the current standard of care. For patients failing BCG therapy, cystectomy is recommended; for patients unsuitable for surgery, the choice of treatment options is currently limited. However, novel interventions, such as chemohyperthermia and electromotive drug administration, enhance the effects of conventional chemotherapeutic agents and are being evaluated in Phase III trials. Radical cystectomy (with pelvic lymphadenectomy and urinary diversion) or radical radiotherapy are the current established treatments for muscle invasive TCC. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is recommended before definitive treatment of muscle invasive TCC; cisplatin-containing combination chemotherapy is the recommended regimen. Palliative chemotherapy is the first-choice treatment in metastatic TCC.
    International Journal of Clinical Practice 11/2012; · 2.43 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common bacterial infections with global expansion. These infections are predominantly caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). METHODS: Totally, 123 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from UTIs patients, using bacterial culture method were subjected to polymerase chain reactions for detection of various O- serogroups, some urovirulence factors, antibiotic resistance genes and resistance to 13 different antibiotics. RESULTS: According to data, the distribution of O1, O2, O6, O7 and O16 serogroups were 2.43%, besides O22, O75 and O83 serogroups were 1.62%. Furthermore, the distribution of O4, O8, O15, O21 and O25 serogroups were 5.69%, 3.25%, 21.13%, 4.06% and 26.01%, respectively. Overall, the fim virulence gene had the highest (86.17%) while the usp virulence gene had the lowest distributions of virulence genes in UPEC strains isolated from UTIs patients. The vat and sen virulence genes were not detected in any UPEC strains. Totally, aadA1 (52.84%), and qnr (46.34%) were the most prevalent antibiotic resistance genes while the distribution of cat1 (15.44%), cmlA (15.44%) and dfrA1 (21.95%) were the least. Resistance to penicillin (100%) and tetracycline (73.98%) had the highest while resistance to nitrofurantoin (5.69%) and trimethoprim (16.26%) had the lowest frequencies. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that the UPEC strains which harbored the high numbers of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes had the high ability to cause diseases that are resistant to most antibiotics. In the current situation, it seems that the administration of penicillin and tetracycline for the treatment of UTIs is vain.
    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 04/2013; 12(1):8. · 1.62 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of ertapenem administered as an outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy for intractable cystitis caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli. We retrospectively reviewed a case series of 3 years of therapeutic experience with ertapenem for intractable recurrent cystitis caused by ESBL-producing E. coli. Ertapenem 1 g/d was parenterally administered to the patients on an outpatient basis until the acquisition of symptomatic improvement and negative conversion of urine culture. Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients, antimicrobial resistance, and clinical response data were analyzed from the patients' medical records. During the course of this study, a total of 383 patients were diagnosed with cystitis, and 24 of them showed ESBL-producing E. coli (6.26%). The mean treatment duration of all patients was 8.5 days. The early clinical and microbiological cure rates 0 to 7 days after the end of treatment were 91.7% (22/24) and 90.9% (20/22), respectively. The late clinical and microbiological cure rates 4 to 6 weeks after the end of treatment were 72.2% (13/18) at both time points. Parenteral ertapenem treatment can be an effective and well-tolerated treatment option for intractable recurrent cystitis by multidrug-resistant ESBL-producing E. coli.
    Korean journal of urology 04/2014; 55(4):270-5.

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 6, 2014