Article

Presenilin 1 Mutants Impair the Self-Renewal and Differentiation of Adult Murine Subventricular Zone-Neuronal Progenitors via Cell-Autonomous Mechanisms Involving Notch Signaling

Department of Neurobiology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.
The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 6.75). 05/2010; 30(20):6903-15. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0527-10.2010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The vast majority of pedigrees with familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) are caused by inheritance of mutations in the PSEN1 1 gene. While genetic ablation studies have revealed a role for presenilin 1 (PS1) in embryonic neurogenesis, little information has emerged regarding the potential effects of FAD-linked PS1 variants on proliferation, self-renewal and differentiation, key events that control cell fate commitment of adult brain neural progenitors (NPCs). We used adult brain subventricular zone (SVZ)-derived NPC cultures transduced with recombinant lentivirus as a means to investigate the effects of various PS1 mutants on self-renewal and differentiation properties. We now show that viral expression of several PS1 mutants in NPCs leads to impaired self-renewal and altered differentiation toward neuronal lineage, in vitro. In line with these observations, diminished constitutive proliferation and steady-state SVZ progenitor pool size was observed in vivo in transgenic mice expressing the PS1DeltaE9 variant. Moreover, NPC cultures established from the SVZ of adult mice expressing PS1DeltaE9 exhibit reduced self-renewal capacity and premature exit toward neuronal fates. To these findings, we show that both the levels of endogenous Notch/CBF-1-transcriptional activity and transcripts encoding Notch target genes are diminished in SVZ NPCs expressing PS1DeltaE9. The deficits in self-renewal and multipotency are restored by expression of Notch1-ICD or a downstream target of the Notch pathway, Hes1. Hence, we argue that a partial reduction in PS-dependent gamma-secretase processing of the Notch, at least in part, accounts for the impairments observed in SVZ NPCs expressing the FAD-linked PS1DeltaE9 variant.

0 Followers
 · 
88 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: With the growth of the aging population and increasing life expectancy, the diagnosis of age-related neurodegenerative diseases is predicted to increase 12% by 2030. There is urgent need to develop better and novel treatments for disorders like Alzheimer's, Huntington's, and Parkinson's diseases. As these neurodegenerative diseases are customarily defined by the progressive loss of neurons, treatment strategies have traditionally focused on replacing neurons lost during disease progression. To this end, the self-renewing and multipotent properties of neural stem/precursor cells (NSPCs) that exist in the adult brain suggest that NSPCs could contribute to a therapy for replacement of damaged or lost neurons. Although a wealth of research demonstrates the proof-of-concept that NSPC transplantation has therapeutic potential, there are considerable barriers between the theory of cell transplantation and clinical implementation. However, a new view on harnessing the power of NSPC for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders has emerged, and focuses on treating neuropathological aspects of the disease prior to the appearance of overt neuronal loss. For example, rather than merely replacing lost neurons, NSPCs are now being considered for their ability to provide trophic support. Here we review the evolution of how the field has considered application of NSPCs for treatment of neurodegeneration disorders. We discuss the challenges posed by the "traditional" view of neurodegeneration - overt cell loss - for utilization of NSPCs for treatment of these disorders. We also review the emergence of an alternative strategy that involves fine-tuning the neurogenic capacity of existing adult NSPCs so that they are engineered to address disease-specific pathologies at specific time points during the trajectory of disease. We conclude with our opinion that for this strategy to become a translational reality, it requires a thorough understanding of NSPCs, the dynamic process of adult neurogenesis, and a better understanding of the pathological trajectory of each neurodegenerative disease.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Along the entire lifetime, Notch is actively involved in dynamic changes in the cellular architecture and function of the nervous system. It controls neurogenesis, the growth of axons and dendrites, synaptic plasticity, and ultimately neuronal death. The specific roles of Notch in adult brain plasticity and neurological disorders have begun to be unraveled in recent years, and pieces of experimental evidence suggest that Notch is operative in diverse brain pathologies including tumorigenesis, stroke, and neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Down syndrome, and multiple sclerosis. In this review, we will cover the recent findings of Notch signaling and neural dysfunction in adult human brain and discuss its relevance in the pathogenesis of diseases of the central nervous system.
    Biomolecular concepts 10/2013; 4(5):465-76. DOI:10.1515/bmc-2013-0006
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Soluble γ-secretase modulators (SGSMs) selectively decrease toxic amyloid β (Aβ) peptides (Aβ42). However, their effect on the physiologic functions of γ-secretase has not been tested in human model systems. γ-Secretase regulates fate determination of neural progenitor cells. Thus, we studied the impact of SGSMs on the neuronal differentiation of ReNcell VM (ReN) human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs). Quantitative PCR analysis showed that treatment of neurosphere-like ReN cell aggregate cultures with γ-secretase inhibitors (GSIs), but not SGSMs, induced a 2- to 4-fold increase in the expression of the neuronal markers Tuj1 and doublecortin. GSI treatment also induced neuronal marker protein expression, as shown by Western blot analysis. In the same conditions, SGSM treatment selectively reduced endogenous Aβ42 levels by ∼80%. Mechanistically, we found that Notch target gene expressions were selectively inhibited by a GSI, not by SGSM treatment. We can assert, for the first time, that SGSMs do not affect the neuronal differentiation of hNPCs while selectively decreasing endogenous Aβ42 levels in the same conditions. Our results suggest that our hNPC differentiation system can serve as a useful model to test the impact of GSIs and SGSMs on both endogenous Aβ levels and γ-secretase physiologic functions including endogenous Notch signaling.
    The FASEB Journal 04/2015; · 5.48 Impact Factor