Smad ubiquitylation regulatory factor 1/2 (Smurf1/2) promotes p53 degradation by stabilizing the E3 ligase MDM2
ABSTRACT The tumor suppressor p53 protein is tightly regulated by a ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation mechanism. Several E3 ubiquitin ligases, including MDM2 (mouse double minute 2), have been reported to play an essential role in the regulation of p53 stability. However, it remains unclear how the activity of these E3 ligases is regulated. Here, we show that the HECT-type E3 ligase Smurf1/2 (Smad ubiquitylation regulatory factor 1/2) promotes p53 degradation by enhancing the activity of the E3 ligase MDM2. We provide evidence that the role of Smurf1/2 on the p53 stability is not dependent on the E3 activity of Smurf1/2 but rather is dependent on the activity of MDM2. We find that Smurf1/2 stabilizes MDM2 by enhancing the heterodimerization of MDM2 with MDMX, during which Smurf1/2 interacts with MDM2 and MDMX. We finally provide evidence that Smurf1/2 regulates apoptosis through p53. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate that Smurf1/2 functions as a factor to stabilize MDM2 protein rather than as a direct E3 ligase in regulation of p53 degradation.
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ABSTRACT: Deregulated microRNAs and their roles in cancer development have attracted much attention. In the present study, we analyzed the roles of miR-195 in colorectal cancer pathogenesis, as its participation in some other types of cancer has been suggested by previous reports. By comparing miR-195 expression in 81 human colorectal cancer tissues and matched non-neoplastic mucosa tissues, we found that miR-195 was downregulated in cancer tissues. And restoration of miR-195 in colorectal cancer cell lines HT29 and LoVo could reduce cell viability, promote cell apoptosis and suppress tumorigenicity. Moreover, important antiapoptotic Bcl-2 was identified to be directly targeted by miR-195, and miR-195 was further suggested to exert its proapoptotic function mainly through targeting Bcl-2 expression. Taken together, our study provides important roles of miR-195 in colorectal cancer pathogenesis and implicates its potential application in cancer therapy.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/2010; 400(2):236-40. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.08.046 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The KRAB-type zinc-finger protein Apak (ATM and p53 associated KZNF protein) specifically suppresses p53-mediated apoptosis. Upon DNA damage, Apak is phosphorylated and inhibited by ATM kinase, resulting in p53 activation. However, how Apak is regulated in response to oncogenic stress remains unknown. Here we show that upon oncogene activation, Apak is inhibited in the tumor suppressor ARF-dependent but ATM-independent manner. Oncogene-induced ARF protein directly interacts with Apak and competes with p53 to bind to Apak, resulting in Apak dissociation from p53. Thus, Apak is differentially regulated in the ARF and ATM-dependent manner in response to oncogenic stress and DNA damage, respectively.FEBS letters 09/2010; 584(18):3909-15. DOI:10.1016/j.febslet.2010.08.015 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The HECT-type ubiquitin ligase (E3) Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor 1 (Smurf1) targets various substrates, including Smad1/5, RhoA, Prickle 1, MEKK2, and JunB for degradation and thereby regulates adult bone formation and embryonic development. Here, we identify the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized Wolfram syndrome protein (WFS1) as a specific degradation substrate of Smurf1. Mutations in the WFS1 gene cause Wolfram syndrome, an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy. WFS1 negatively regulates the ER stress response, and WFS1 deficiency in mice increases ER stress and triggers apoptosis. We show that Smurf1 interacts with WFS1 at the ER and promotes the ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of WFS1. A C-terminal luminal region in WFS1, including residues 667-700, is involved in this degradation. Wild-type WFS1 as well as a subset of WFS1 mutants that include this degron region are susceptible to Smurf1-mediated degradation. By contrast, pathophysiological deletion mutants of WFS1 lacking the degron, such as W648X, Y660X, and Q667X, are resistant to degradation by Smurf1. Depletion of Smurf1 by RNA interference results in increased WFS1 and decreased ATF6α levels. Furthermore, we show that ER stress induces Smurf1 degradation and WFS1 up-regulation. These findings reveal for the first time that Smurf1 targets an ER-localized protein for degradation and that Smurf1 is regulated by ER stress.Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2011; 286(20):18037-47. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M111.225615 · 4.57 Impact Factor