JNK1 and JNK2 differently regulate IL-12 production in THP-1 macrophage cells.
ABSTRACT Macrophages play a key role in initiating the innate responses to infection by secreting cytokines such as interleukin-12 (IL-12). This study defined the distinct regulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated IL-12 production by c-jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK)1 and JNK2 isoforms in human macrophages. Knockdown of JNK1 and JNK2 by small interference RNA (siRNA) reduced and enhanced LPS-induced IL-12 p40 production in THP-1 macrophage cells, respectively. The simultaneous knockdown of JNK1 and JNK2 augmented LPS-induced IL-12 production as well as a specific JNK inhibitor. In addition, transfection of siRNA against phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) p110beta attenuated LPS-induced IL-12 production and JNK1 phosphorylation, while not affecting JNK2 phosphorylation. These findings indicate that JNK1- and JNK2-mediated signaling plays a positive and a negative role, respectively, in LPS-induced IL-12 production and PI3K p110beta controls LPS-induced JNK1 activation, not JNK2 activation, resulting in the positive regulation of IL-12 production in THP-1 macrophage cells.
- SourceAvailable from: Bardia Askari[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The enzyme acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (ACSL1) is induced by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α and PPARγ in insulin target tissues, such as skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, and plays an important role in beta-oxidation in these tissues. In macrophages, however, ACSL1 mediates inflammatory effects without significant effects on beta-oxidation. Thus, the function of ACSL1 varies in different tissues. We therefore investigated the signals and signal transduction pathways resulting in ACSL1 induction in macrophages, as well as the consequences of ACSL1 deficiency for phospholipid turnover in LPS-activated macrophages. LPS, Gram-negative bacteria, IFN-γ and TNFαall induce ACSL1 expression in macrophages, whereas PPAR agonists do not. LPS-induced ACSL1 expression is dependent on toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and its adapter protein TRIF (toll-like receptor adaptor molecule 1), but does not require the MyD88 (myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88) arm of TLR4 signaling, nor does it require STAT1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 1) for maximal induction. Furthermore, ACSL1 deletion attenuates phospholipid turnover in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Thus, the regulation and biological function of ACSL1 in macrophages differs markedly from that in insulin target tissues. These results suggest that ACSL1 may have an important role in the innate immune response. Further, these findings illustrate an interesting paradigm in which the same enzyme, ACSL1, confers distinct biological effects in different cell types, and these disparate functions are paralleled by differences in the pathways that regulate its expression.Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Helminth infection leads to the local proliferation and accumulation of macrophages in tissues. However, the function of macrophages during helminth infection remains unclear. SH2-containing inositol 5'-phosphatase 1 (Ship1, Inpp5d) is a lipid phosphatase that has been shown to play a critical role in macrophage function. Here, we identify a critical role for Ship1 in the negative regulation of interleukin (IL)-12/23p40 production by macrophages during infection with the intestinal helminth parasite Trichuris muris. Mice with myeloid cell-specific deletion of Ship1 (Ship1(ΔLysM) mice) develop a non-protective T-helper type 1 cell response and fail to expel parasites. Ship1-deficient macrophages produce heightened levels of IL-12/23p40 in vitro and in vivo and antibody blockade of IL-12/23p40 renders Ship1(ΔLysM) mice resistant to Trichuris infection. Our results identify a critical role for the negative regulation of IL-12/23p40 production by macrophages in the development of a protective T(H)2 cell response.Mucosal Immunology 04/2012; 5(5):535-43. · 7.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Leprosy is a persistent infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae that still affects over 200,000 new patients annually. The host genetic background is an important risk factor for leprosy susceptibility and the PARK2 gene is a replicated leprosy susceptibility candidate gene. The protein product of PARK2, Parkin, is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that is involved in the development of various forms of Parkinsonism. The human macrophage is both a natural host cell of M. leprae as well as a primary mediator of natural immune defenses, in part by secreting important pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Here, we report that down-regulation of Parkin in THP-1 macrophages, human monocyte-derived macrophages and human Schwann cells resulted in a consistent and specific decrease in interleukin-6 (IL-6) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1/CCL2) production in response to mycobacteria or LPS. Interestingly, production of IL-6 at 6 hours by THP-1 cells stimulated with live M. leprae and M. bovis BCG was dependent on pretreatment with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (VD). Parkin knockdown in VD-treated cells blocked IL-6 induction by mycobacteria. However, IκB-α phosphorylation and levels of IκB-ξ, a nuclear protein required for IL-6 expression, were not affected by Parkin silencing. Phosphorylation of MAPK ERK1/2 and p38 was unaffected by Parkin silencing while JNK activation was promoted but did not explain the altered cytokine production. In a final set of experiments we found that genetic risk factors of leprosy located in the PARK2 promoter region were significantly correlated with M. leprae sonicate triggered CCL2 and IL6 transcript levels in whole blood assays. These results associated genetically controlled changes in the production of MCP-1/CCL2 and IL-6 with known leprosy susceptibility factors.PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 01/2013; 7(1):e2015. · 4.57 Impact Factor