Is low cholesterol associated with depression in cardiac patients?

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
International journal of cardiology (Impact Factor: 4.04). 12/2010; 145(3):537-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2010.04.070
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: There is substantial evidence that depression is a risk factor for cardiac morbidity and mortality, both for patients without clinical evidence of coronary heart disease at index examination and for patients with established coronary disease. The relationship is most apparent for patients with a recent acute myocardial infarction. Many questions about the impact of depression on heart disease remain unresolved.
    Biological Psychiatry 09/2003; 54(3):241-7. DOI:10.1016/S0006-3223(03)00111-2 · 10.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Principles of Ethical Publishing in the International Journal of Cardiology: 1. That the corresponding author has the approval of all other listed authors for the submission and publication of all versions of the manuscript. 2. That all people who have a right to be recognised as authors have been included on the list of authors and everyone listed as an author has made an independent material contribution to the manuscript.3. That the work submitted in the manuscript is original and has not been published elsewhere and is not presently under consideration of publication by any other journal. The oral or poster presentation of parts of the work and its publishing as a single page abstract does not count as prior publication for this purpose. 4. That the material in the manuscript has been acquired according to modern ethical standards and does not contain material copied from anyone else without their written permission.5. That all material which derives from prior work, including from the same authors, is properly attributed to the prior publication by proper citation.6. That the manuscript will be maintained on the servers of the Journal and held to be a valid publication by the Journal only as long as all statements in these principles remain true.7. That if any of the statements above ceases to be true the authors have a duty to notify the journal as soon as possible so that the manuscript can be withdrawn.
    International journal of cardiology 12/2008; 131(2):149-50. DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2008.11.048 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cohort and case-control studies found that lower serum total cholesterol is associated with depression. It is, however, unclear whether low cholesterol or its lipoprotein fractions are causally related to depression. Using a Mendelian randomization design, the potential association between apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype (affecting lifetime cholesterol levels) and depressive symptoms was studied. In the longitudinal Finland, Italy, the Netherlands Elderly (FINE) Study 1089 men were included in 1985. The 435 men from Finland, 418 men from The Netherlands, and 236 men from Italy (aged 65-84 years) were free of myocardial infarction, stroke, diabetes mellitus and cancer at all time points. They were prospectively studied around 1985 (n=658), 1990 (n=668), 1995 (n=327), and 2000 (n=82). Associations between serum cholesterol, lipoprotein fractions and APOE genotype, with depressive symptoms (by Zung self-rating depression scale [SDS]) were analyzed using multilevel regression models. Serum total cholesterol was inversely associated with the Zung SDS (-0.61 points per 1 mmol/L increase in cholesterol; 95% confidence interval: -1.05 to -0.17; P=0.007), after adjustment for country, age, body mass index, smoking, and alcohol intake. However, none of the cholesterol lipoprotein fractions were associated with the Zung SDS. The APOE genotypes epsilon4/4, epsilon4/3; epsilon3/3; epsilon4/2, and epsilon3/2 or epsilon2/2 were associated with decreasing levels of serum total and LDL cholesterol (Ps<0.001), but not with increasing depressive symptoms (P=0.67). APOE genotype was assessed through protein isoforms and not actual DNA-based typing. There was a modest inverse relationship between depression scores and serum total cholesterol in elderly men, but no associations with lipoprotein fractions or with the APOE genotype.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 12/2008; 115(3):471-7. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2008.10.004 · 3.38 Impact Factor
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