Cytotoxicity Effects of Graphene and Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes in Neural Phaeochromocytoma-Derived PC12 Cells
ABSTRACT Graphitic nanomaterials such as graphene layers (G) and single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) are potential candidates in a large number of biomedical applications. However, little is known about the effects of these nanomaterials on biological systems. Here we show that the shape of these materials is directly related to their induced cellular toxicity. Both G and SWCNT induce cytotoxic effects, and these effects are concentration- and shape-dependent. Interestingly, at low concentrations, G induced stronger metabolic activity than SWCNT, a trend that reversed at higher concentrations. Lactate dehydrogenase levels were found to be significantly higher for SWCNT as compared to the G samples. Moreover, reactive oxygen species were generated in a concentration- and time-dependent manner after exposure to G, indicating an oxidative stress mechanism. Furthermore, time-dependent caspase 3 activation after exposure to G (10 microg/mL) shows evidence of apoptosis. Altogether these studies suggest different biological activities of the graphitic nanomaterials, with the shape playing a primary role.
Sensors and Actuators B Chemical 11/2013; 188:454-461. DOI:10.1016/j.snb.2013.07.039 · 3.84 Impact Factor
Carbon 04/2015; · 6.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although induction of oxidative stress is widely accepted as one of the major cytotoxic effects of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), there is no solid understanding of how biological redox reactions are affected and how reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated by CNTs, especially when they are coated with various dispersing agents. In this study, we investigated electron transfer from biological reducing agents through nonfunctionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) to molecular oxygen, generating ROS in the process. Electron transfer rates in the colloidal SWCNT suspensions depended on the dispersant used to stabilize them, with six dispersants examined. Oxidation of both nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and dithiothreitol was catalyzed by SWCNTs coated with either cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) or Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM). SWCNTs coated with other types of surfactants showed only slight effect. In the presence of NADH or dithiothreitol, generation of ROS also was dispersant-dependent, with CTAB- and SRNOM-coated SWCNTs generating significant amounts of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide. In systems containing xanthine and xanthine oxidase, accumulated charge on the SWCNTs appeared to be transferred to superoxide anion, resulting in indirect disproportionation of superoxide anion, forming more hydrogen peroxide.Carbon 08/2015; 89:361-371. DOI:10.1016/j.carbon.2015.03.052 · 6.16 Impact Factor