Chitosan in Plant Protection

University of Manitoba, Department of Plant Science, 222, Agriculture Building, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2, Canada.
Marine Drugs (Impact Factor: 2.85). 04/2010; 8(4):968-87. DOI: 10.3390/md8040968
Source: PubMed


Chitin and chitosan are naturally-occurring compounds that have potential in agriculture with regard to controlling plant diseases. These molecules were shown to display toxicity and inhibit fungal growth and development. They were reported to be active against viruses, bacteria and other pests. Fragments from chitin and chitosan are known to have eliciting activities leading to a variety of defense responses in host plants in response to microbial infections, including the accumulation of phytoalexins, pathogen-related (PR) proteins and proteinase inhibitors, lignin synthesis, and callose formation. Based on these and other proprieties that help strengthen host plant defenses, interest has been growing in using them in agricultural systems to reduce the negative impact of diseases on yield and quality of crops. This review recapitulates the properties and uses of chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives, and will focus on their applications and mechanisms of action during plant-pathogen interactions.

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    • "Elicitors including methyl salicylate, and chitosan as well as NaCl were utilized to stimulate the plant stress response to increase the anti-diabetic activity of W. somnifera. Methyl salicylate and chitosan have been shown to be very effective at inducing the plant defense response (Ament et al., 2010; El Hadrami et al., 2010). Methyl salicylate is a natural plant derivative of salicylic acid implicated as an airborne signal involved with systemic acquired resistance (Shah et al., 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: Withania somnifera, known in India as Asghawhanda, is used traditionally to treat many medical problems including diabetes and has demonstrated therapeutic activity in various animal models as well as in diabetic patients. While much of W. somnifera's therapeutic activity is attributed to withanolides, their role in the anti-diabetic activity of W. somnifera has not been adequately studied. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-diabetic activity of W. somnifera extract and purified withanolides, as well as the effect of various elicitors on this activity. W. somnifera leaf and root extracts increased glucose uptake in myotubes and adipocytes in a dose dependent manner, with the leaf extract more active than the root extract. Leaf but not root extract increased insulin secretion in basal pancreatic beta cells but not in stimulated cells. Six withanolides isolated from W. somnifera were tested for anti-diabetic activity based on glucose uptake in skeletal myotubes. Withaferin A was found to increase glucose uptake, with 10μM producing a 54% increase compared with control, suggesting that withaferin A is at least partially responsible for W. somnifera's anti-diabetic activity. Elicitors applied to the root growing solutions affected the physiological state of the plants, altering membrane leakage or osmotic potential. Methyl salicylate and chitosan increased withaferin A content by 75% and 69% respectively, and extracts from elicited plants increased glucose uptake to a higher extent than non-elicited plants, demonstrating a correlation between increased content of withaferin A and anti-diabetic activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Phytochemistry 03/2015; 116(1). DOI:10.1016/j.phytochem.2015.02.029 · 2.55 Impact Factor
    • "Methods against plant pathogens have to be available as alternative to traditional pesticides. In order to reduce their use, the primary idea of our work was planting plants less susceptible to pathogen infections, strengthened by using chitosan, an " environment friendly " compound (El Hadrami et al. 2010). Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide produced by deacetylation of chitin, extracted from the crustaceans' exoskeleton. "
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    ABSTRACT: Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev.) C.F. Liang & A.R. Ferguson), a profitable crop with a steady growth in export, should be certainly preserved from the most common diseases. Kiwi plants were strengthened with a natural compound, the chitosan, a well-known elicitor of Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR), to study and evaluate the interaction between this compound and in vitro cultures, in order to propose a possible alternative to reduce the number of chemical pesticide treatments in the prevention of disease outbreak. To detect the effectiveness in eliciting SAR, the effects 15 and 50 mg/L of chitosan on kiwi micropropagated plants were tested at the in vitro multiplication stage. Different biochemical markers were measured, like phenols and several enzymes involved in defence response, i.e. guaiacol-peroxidase (G-POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). The beneficial growth effect was also evaluated measuring the dry biomass and the total soluble protein content of treated plants. The systemic disease protection elicited by chitosan has been detected thanks to its ability to enhance the activity of enzymes involved in detoxification processes (G-POD and APX) and in increasing plant defence barriers (PAL and PPO). In addition, chitosan treatment increased both dry biomass and protein contents demonstrating a general enhancement of plant fitness.
    Organic Agriculture 12/2014; 5(3). DOI:10.1007/s13165-014-0087-x
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    • "Among MAMPs, chitosan (CHT), a deacetylated chitin derivative, is worthy of special attention because of its use in chemical-induced resistance and efficacy against virus diseases (Iriti and Faoro 2009). Like a general elicitor, CHT is able to prime an aspecific, long-lasting and SAR, possibly by binding to a specific receptor in the plant cell surface (Chirkov 2002; Chen and Xu 2005; Iriti and Faoro 2009; El Hadrami et al. 2010; Silipo et al. 2010; Yin et al. 2010a; Falcón- Rodríguez et al. 2012; Delaunois et al. 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: Immunity represents a trait common to all living organisms, and animals and plants share some similarities. Therefore, in susceptible host plants, complex defence machinery may be stimulated by elicitors. Among these, chitosan deserves particular attention because of its proved efficacy. This survey deals with the antiviral activity of chitosan, focusing on its perception by the plant cell and mechanism of action. Emphasis has been paid to benefits and limitations of this strategy in crop protection, as well as to the potential of chitosan as a promising agent in virus disease control.
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research 09/2014; 22(4). DOI:10.1007/s11356-014-3571-7 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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