Sleep patterns and their age-related changes in elementary-school children

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Yeungnam University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.
Sleep Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.15). 06/2010; 11(6):569-75. DOI: 10.1016/j.sleep.2010.03.011
Source: PubMed


This study aimed to evaluate children's bedtime, wake-up time, total sleep duration (TSD), sleep latency, and daytime napping by age and gender. Its secondary aim was to compare sleep duration among demographic and lifestyle factors.
We performed a cross-sectional study of 3639 children in Daegu, Korea, comparing bedtimes, wake-up times, TSDs, daytime naps, and sleep latency according to age and gender, as well as comparing sleep duration according to the children's demographic and lifestyle factors.
Bedtime and TSD varied significantly by age. But wake-up time differences were not as large, as the differences in bedtimes and TSDs. There were no gender differences in any sleep parameters. The percentage of the children who took naps decreased until age 9 and began increasing again at age 10. Children who lived in apartments got less sleep than did those living in other types of housing. Extracurricular academic activities, duration and timing of television-watching, and computer playing were also related to the children's sleep duration.
Older children sleep less than younger children; the main reason is late bedtimes. Late bedtimes may be due to socio-cultural factors, high levels of nighttime and recreational activities, and/or excessive academic activities.

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    • "Therefore, sleep loss is not uncommon around the time of puberty (Smaldone, Honig, & Byrne, 2007). In a Korean study, children's total night sleep duration decreased 33 min from 9 years of age to 12 years of age; those children who received tutoring for > 2 hr per day were shown to sleep less than others (Seo et al., 2010). One of the reasons proposed for such sleep deprivation in the Korean fifth-and sixth-graders was their academic demands (Yang, Kim, Patel, & Lee, 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: Insufficient sleep in school-aged children is common in modern society, with homework burden being a potential risk factor. The aim of this article is to explore the effect of sleep hygiene on the association between homework and sleep duration. Children filled out the Chinese version of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale, and parents filled out a sociodemographic questionnaire. The final sample included 363 boys and 371 girls with a mean age of 10.82 ± 0.38 years. Children with more homework went to bed later and slept less. Better sleep hygiene was associated with earlier bedtimes and longer sleep duration. Findings suggest that homework burden had a larger effect on sleep duration than sleep hygiene. Fifth-grade children in Shanghai have an excessive homework burden, which overwrites the benefit of sleep hygiene on sleep duration.
    Behavioral Sleep Medicine 11/2013; 12(5). DOI:10.1080/15402002.2013.825837 · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    • "Mean TST decreased with increasing age on both weekdays and weekends. The main reason for the age-dependent decrease in TST was a later sleep onset, whereas wake-up times are less related to age, as shown previously [34]. TST was markedly shorter in the present study compared with age-specific normative reference values for sleep duration [35]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to describe the relationship between objective measures of sleep, physical activity and BMI in Swedish pre-adolescents. The day-to-day association between physical activity and sleep quality as well as week-day and weekend pattern of sleep is also described. We conducted a cross sectional study consisted of a cohort of 1.231 children aged six to ten years within the Stockholm county area. Sleep and physical activity were measured by accelerometry during seven consecutive days. Outcome measures are total sleep time, sleep efficiency, sleep start and sleep end; physical activity intensity divided into: sedentary (<1.5 METS), light (1.5 to 3 METS) and moderate-to-vigorous (> 3 METS); and Body Mass Index standard deviations score, BMIsds. Total sleep time decreased with increasing age, and was shorter in boys than girls on both weekdays and weekends. Late bedtime but consistent wake-up time during weekends made total sleep time shorter on weekends than on weekdays. Day-to-day within-subject analysis revealed that moderate-to-vigorous intense physical activity promoted an increased sleep efficiency the following night (CI < 0.001 to 0.047), while total sleep time was not affected (CI -0.003 to 0.043). Neither sleep duration (CI -0.024 to 0.022) nor sleep efficiency (CI -0.019 to 0.028) affected mean physical activity level the subsequent day. The between-subject analysis indicates that the sleep of children characterized by high moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during the day was frequently interrupted (SE = -.23, P < .01). A negative association between BMIsds and sleep duration was found (-.10, p < .01). Short sleep duration was associated with high BMI in six to ten year old children. This study underscores the importance of consistent bedtimes throughout the week for promoting sleep duration in preadolescents. Furthermore, this study suggests that a large proportion of intensive physical activity during the day might promote good sleep quality.
    International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 06/2013; 10(1):82. DOI:10.1186/1479-5868-10-82 · 4.11 Impact Factor
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    • "Seo et al. (2010) and Touchette et al. (2007) studies corroborated our findings. Seo et al. (2010) found that evaluated children and teenagers (age between 7 and 12 years old) slept average at 10:30 p.m.. Touchette et al. (2007) found that the majority of the individuals (50.30%) participating in his research had slept around 10 hours per night, while 38.90% slept around 11 hours per night. Such data pointed out that an average of 9 hours of sleep per night, with bedtime around 9-10 p.m., might be considered proper for the evaluated age group in the present study. "
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    ABSTRACT: The relation between the sleep and the visuospatial skills was evaluated in 31 students from a public school. For the analysis of sleep, the parents of volunteers answered a sleep evaluation questionnaire and the sleep diary. The visuospatial performance was evaluated by Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III), through the subtest PictureCompletion, the Perceptual Organization Index and the Performance IQ Scale. In accordance with the results, 72% of the students presented regular sleep and good sleep length. The visuospatial performance was deficient in subtest Picture Completion for 56% of the students, and on the Performance IQ Scale for 60% of the students. Significant correlations were verified between early sleep onset (rho = -0.40, p <0.05) and regular sleep (rho = -0.39, p <0.05) with the visuospatial performance. It was concluded that sleeping early and having a regular sleep may contribute to a better visuospatialperformance.
    Estudos de Psicologia (Natal) 03/2013; 18(1):109-116. DOI:10.1590/S1413-294X2013000100018
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