Sleep patterns and their age-related changes in elementary-school children
ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate children's bedtime, wake-up time, total sleep duration (TSD), sleep latency, and daytime napping by age and gender. Its secondary aim was to compare sleep duration among demographic and lifestyle factors.
We performed a cross-sectional study of 3639 children in Daegu, Korea, comparing bedtimes, wake-up times, TSDs, daytime naps, and sleep latency according to age and gender, as well as comparing sleep duration according to the children's demographic and lifestyle factors.
Bedtime and TSD varied significantly by age. But wake-up time differences were not as large, as the differences in bedtimes and TSDs. There were no gender differences in any sleep parameters. The percentage of the children who took naps decreased until age 9 and began increasing again at age 10. Children who lived in apartments got less sleep than did those living in other types of housing. Extracurricular academic activities, duration and timing of television-watching, and computer playing were also related to the children's sleep duration.
Older children sleep less than younger children; the main reason is late bedtimes. Late bedtimes may be due to socio-cultural factors, high levels of nighttime and recreational activities, and/or excessive academic activities.
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- "Therefore, sleep loss is not uncommon around the time of puberty (Smaldone, Honig, & Byrne, 2007). In a Korean study, children's total night sleep duration decreased 33 min from 9 years of age to 12 years of age; those children who received tutoring for > 2 hr per day were shown to sleep less than others (Seo et al., 2010). One of the reasons proposed for such sleep deprivation in the Korean fifth-and sixth-graders was their academic demands (Yang, Kim, Patel, & Lee, 2005). "
ABSTRACT: Insufficient sleep in school-aged children is common in modern society, with homework burden being a potential risk factor. The aim of this article is to explore the effect of sleep hygiene on the association between homework and sleep duration. Children filled out the Chinese version of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale, and parents filled out a sociodemographic questionnaire. The final sample included 363 boys and 371 girls with a mean age of 10.82 ± 0.38 years. Children with more homework went to bed later and slept less. Better sleep hygiene was associated with earlier bedtimes and longer sleep duration. Findings suggest that homework burden had a larger effect on sleep duration than sleep hygiene. Fifth-grade children in Shanghai have an excessive homework burden, which overwrites the benefit of sleep hygiene on sleep duration.Behavioral Sleep Medicine 11/2013; DOI:10.1080/15402002.2013.825837 · 1.56 Impact Factor
Estudos de Psicologia (Natal) 03/2013; 18(1):109-116. DOI:10.1590/S1413-294X2013000100018
- "Seo et al. (2010) and Touchette et al. (2007) studies corroborated our findings. Seo et al. (2010) found that evaluated children and teenagers (age between 7 and 12 years old) slept average at 10:30 p.m.. Touchette et al. (2007) found that the majority of the individuals (50.30%) participating in his research had slept around 10 hours per night, while 38.90% slept around 11 hours per night. Such data pointed out that an average of 9 hours of sleep per night, with bedtime around 9-10 p.m., might be considered proper for the evaluated age group in the present study. "
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ABSTRACT: A systematic study of Cu CMP concerning the influence of process parameters such as polishing pressure (between 10.9 and 32.8 kPa) and relative velocity between wafer and pad (between 24.3 and 105.5 cm/s) on the planarization behavior of the CMP process and also Cu dishing and SiO2 thinning has been performed. A geometry-independent parameter like the planarization rate was defined and used to describe the global-scale planarization ability of the process. Within the investigated range, the polishing pressure has no impact on the planarization rate. On the contrary, polishing at lower velocities has to be avoided, because it would lead to a slower planarization process. For the consumables used (IC 1000/SUBA IV as a polishing pad and QCTT 1010 as a slurry), both the polishing pressure and the relative velocity between wafer and pad do not influence Cu dishing and SiO2 thinning at the nominal endpoint of the process and also during overpolishing. As a consequence, a wide-margin process was established.Materials for Advanced Metallization, 1997. MAM '97 Abstracts Booklet., European Workshop; 02/1998