Relationship between impulsivity and decision making in cocaine dependence

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, TX, USA.
Psychiatry Research (Impact Factor: 2.47). 07/2010; 178(2):299-304. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2009.11.024
Source: PubMed


Impulsivity and decision making are associated on a theoretical level in that impaired planning is a component of both. However, few studies have examined the relationship between measures of decision making and impulsivity in clinical populations. The purpose of this study was to compare cocaine-dependent subjects to controls on a measure of decision making (the Iowa Gambling Task or IGT), a questionnaire measure of impulsivity (the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale or BIS-11) and a measure of behavioural inhibition (the immediate memory task or IMT), and to examine the interrelationship among these measures. Results of the study showed that cocaine-dependent subjects made more disadvantageous choices on the IGT, had higher scores on the BIS and more commission errors on the IMT. Cognitive model analysis showed that choice consistency factors on the IGT differed between cocaine-dependent subjects and controls. However, there was no significant correlation between IGT performance and the BIS total score or subscales or IMT commission errors. These results suggest that in cocaine-dependent subjects there is little overlap between decision making as measured by the IGT and impulsivity/behavioural inhibition as measured by the BIS and IMT.

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    • "In addition, BIS scores from the current study (~68–69 for individuals with cocaine or methamphetamine use disorders) were also consistent with our previously conducted research (~72–73; Tziortzis et al., 2011)). Moreover, our results are similar to other findings on impulsivity in cocaine-dependent subjects assessed in other laboratories , who also demonstrated higher scores on the BIS when compared to healthy controls (Ersche et al., 2010; Kjome et al., 2010; Moeller et al., 2002; Nielsen et al., 2012; Patkar et al., 2002, 2004; Walsh et al., 2010). This study contained a number of strengths in comparison to other studies of its kind. "
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    ABSTRACT: Previous research has focused on developing theories of addiction that may explain behavior in cocaine- and methamphetamine-dependent individuals. The primary goal of this report was to compare and contrast the prevalence of self-reported measures of impulsivity, depression, lifetime stress and sensation-seeking in healthy controls versus individuals with cocaine or methamphetamine use disorders. Twenty-nine individuals with cocaine use disorders and 31 individuals with methamphetamine use disorders were matched with 31 healthy control participants on several demographic variables. All participants were administered behavioral questionnaires including the Barrett Impulsiveness Scale (assessing impulsivity), Beck Depression Inventory II (assessing depression), Life Stressor Checklist-Revised (assessing lifetime stress) and the Impulsive Sensation Seeking Scale (assessing sensation-seeking). When compared to healthy controls, individuals with cocaine and methamphetamine use disorders had significantly higher levels of impulsivity and sensation-seeking. In addition, when compared to healthy controls, individuals with cocaine use disorders had significantly higher Beck Depression Inventory II scores, while individuals with methamphetamine use disorders had significantly higher Life Stressor Checklist-Revised scores. The results revealed that there were significantly higher levels of impulsivity, depression and sensation-seeking in cocaine users and significantly higher impulsivity, lifetime stress and sensation-seeking in methamphetamine users when compared to healthy controls. © The Author(s) 2014.
    Journal of Psychopharmacology 11/2014; 29(1). DOI:10.1177/0269881114560182 · 3.59 Impact Factor
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    • "likelihood of relapse to cocaine use indicate that monitoring or improving sleep quality should be a primary clinical focus as abstinence progresses [3]. A second problem facing cocaine dependent individuals as abstinence progresses is a worsening of performance on tasks assessing impulsivity (Iowa Gambling Task), immediate and delayed memory, and sustained attention [5] [6]. These deficits may be associated with sleep problems mentioned above, as decrements in procedural learning tend to worsen in parallel with worsening physiological measures of sleep quality [7]. "
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    • "[23]–[25]). Further, whereas most previous computational modeling studies have assessed the effects of drug use with current users [9], [20], [23], [24], only about 10% of our DU+ participants were current drug users. In relation to our findings, this suggests that the overt behavioral manifestations of impairments in decision-making may dissipate with abstinence from drug use; however the underlying decision-making biases may remain and may continue to influence important daily activities and risk behaviors. "
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