Are endometrial polyps true cancer precursors?
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to assess whether endometrial polyps (EMPs) represent cancer precursors.
Age standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of histologically verified endometrial cancers (EmCas) were estimated in women with EMPs and in women with uterine leiomyomata, which is a condition that is unrelated to endometrial carcinogenesis. SIRs were calculated as the ratio of observed to expected EmCas based on age-specific incidence rates for female Montreal residents during the same period.
Of 1467 women with EMPs, 125 (8.5%) had EmCa. Of 1138 patients with uterine leiomyomata, 133 (11.7%) had EmCa. The SIRs of EmCa for women with EMPs (odds ratio, 8.0; 95% confidence interval, 6.6-9.5) were significantly lower than that in women with leiomyomata (odds ratio, 19.1; 95% confidence interval, 16.0-22.6). Abnormal uterine bleeding was the main reason for evaluating patients with EMP with or without associated EmCa.
The findings of higher EmCa incidence are consistent with enhanced detection opportunity rather than with the endometrial cancer precursor potential of EMPs.
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ABSTRACT: The association between polyps and endometrial cancer is under debate. The main objectives of this study were to study the frequency and the characteristics of malignant and premalignant endometrial changes in women with endometrial polyp at ultrasound. The study population consisted of 1,390 consecutive patients that were referred to office hysteroscopy because of the ultrasonographic diagnosis of endometrial polyps. A total of 16 cases of endometrial neoplasia were diagnosed (1.15%). The frequencies of atypia and cancer in our population were 0.14% and 1.01%, respectively. All patients, except one, were postmenopausal (93.8%). All had undergone the initial ultrasonographic assessment because of symptoms (bleeding in the 93.8%). The neoplasia was not confined to the polyp in 75% of the cases. Nine cases had a lower risk disease (56.25%; atypical hyperplasia or endometrial cancer stage IA-G1,2), while seven had a higher risk cancer (43.75%; ≥ stage IA-G3). Patients with a higher risk disease, were found to be significantly younger, and their polyps were smaller, albeit non-significantly. In spite of the common practice to refer all women with an ultrasound diagnosis of polyp to hysteroscopy, our data show how the prevalence of endometrial neoplasia in these patients is low (1.15%). Moreover, the malignancy is not confined to a polyp in most of the cases.Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 05/2014; · 0.55 Impact Factor