Myosin VI rewrites the rules for myosin motors.

Department of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, B700 Richards Building, 3700 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6085, USA.
Cell (Impact Factor: 31.96). 05/2010; 141(4):573-82. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2010.04.028
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Myosin VI is the only type of myosin motor known to move toward the minus ends of actin filaments. This reversal in the direction of its movement is in part a consequence of the repositioning of its lever arm. In addition, myosin VI has a number of other specialized structural and functional adaptations that optimize performance of its unique cellular roles. Given that other classes of myosins may share some of these features, understanding the design principles of myosin VI will help guide the study of the functions of myosins that adopt similar strategies.

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    ABSTRACT: Myosin VI (MVI) is a unique unconventional myosin translocating, unlike other myosins, towards the minus end of actin filaments. It is involved in numerous cellular processes such as endocytosis, intracellular trafficking, cell migration, and transcription. In mammalian skeletal muscles it localizes mainly to sarcoplasmic reticulum and is also present within the muscle nuclei and at the neuromuscular junction (Karolczak et al. Histochem Cell Biol 2013; 23:219-228). We have also shown that in denervated rat hindlimb muscle the MVI expression level is significantly increased and its localization is changed, indicating an important role of MVI in striated muscle pathology. Here, we addressed this problem by examining the distribution and expression levels of myosin VI in biopsies of skeletal muscles from patients with different myopathies. We found that, particularly in myopathies associated with fiber atrophy, the amount of MVI was enhanced and its localization in affected fibers was changed. Also, since a mutation within the human MVI gene was shown to be associated with cardiomyopathy, we assessed MVI localization and expression level in cardiac muscle using wild type and MLP(−/−) mice, a dilated cardiomyopathy model. No significant difference in MVI expression level was observed for both types of animals. MVI was found at intercalated discs and also at the sarcoplasmic reticulum. In the knockout mice, it was also present in ring-like structures surrounding the nuclei. The data indicate that in striated muscle MVI could be engaged in sarcoplasmic reticulum maintenance and/or functioning, vesicular transport, signal transmission and possibly in gene transcription. Anat Rec, 297:1706–1713, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    The Anatomical Record Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 09/2014; 297(9). · 1.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In animal cells, microtubule and actin tracks and their associated motors (dynein, kinesin, and myosin) are thought to regulate long- and short-range transport, respectively [1-8]. Consistent with this, microtubules extend from the perinuclear centrosome to the plasma membrane and allow bidirectional cargo transport over long distances (>1 μm). In contrast, actin often comprises a complex network of short randomly oriented filaments, suggesting that myosin motors move cargo short distances. These observations underpin the "highways and local roads" model for transport along microtubule and actin tracks [2]. The "cooperative capture" model exemplifies this view and suggests that melanosome distribution in melanocyte dendrites is maintained by long-range transport on microtubules followed by actin/myosin-Va-dependent tethering [5, 9]. In this study, we used cell normalization technology to quantitatively examine the contribution of microtubules and actin/myosin-Va to organelle distribution in melanocytes. Surprisingly, our results indicate that microtubules are essential for centripetal, but not centrifugal, transport. Instead, we find that microtubules retard a centrifugal transport process that is dependent on myosin-Va and a population of dynamic F-actin. Functional analysis of mutant proteins indicates that myosin-Va works as a transporter dispersing melanosomes along actin tracks whose +/barbed ends are oriented toward the plasma membrane. Overall, our data highlight the role of myosin-Va and actin in transport, and not tethering, and suggest a new model in which organelle distribution is determined by the balance between microtubule-dependent centripetal and myosin-Va/actin-dependent centrifugal transport. These observations appear to be consistent with evidence coming from other systems showing that actin/myosin networks can drive long-distance organelle transport and positioning [10, 11].
    Current biology : CB. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: It is unclear whether the reverse-direction myosin (myosin VI) functions as a monomer or dimer in cells and how it generates large movements on actin. We deleted a stable, single-α-helix (SAH) domain that has been proposed to function as part of a lever arm to amplify movements without impact on in vitro movement or in vivo functions. A myosin VI construct that used this SAH domain as part of its lever arm was able to take large steps in vitro but did not rescue in vivo functions. It was necessary for myosin VI to internally dimerize, triggering unfolding of a three-helix bundle and calmodulin binding in order to step normally in vitro and rescue endocytosis and Golgi morphology in myosin VI-null fibroblasts. A model for myosin VI emerges in which cargo binding triggers dimerization and unfolds the three-helix bundle to create a lever arm essential for in vivo functions.
    Cell Reports 08/2014; 8(5). · 7.21 Impact Factor

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