p38-targeted inhibition of interleukin-12 expression by ethanol extract from Cordyceps bassiana in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages.
ABSTRACT Cordyceps species have been known as ethnopharmacologically valuable mushroom in Korea, China, and Japan. This plant has been reported to exhibit a variety of pharmacological activities such as antioxidative, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and antiobesity effects. Although numerous pharmacological potentials of Cordyceps spp. have been demonstrated, immunomodulatory effect of Cordyceps bassiana has not been published yet. To evaluate its immunomodulatory activity, macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were employed and the production of interleukin-12 (IL-12) was explored in terms of understanding its molecular inhibitory mechanism. Seventy percent of ethanol extract from Cordyceps bassiana (Cb-EE) was able to suppress the expression of IL-12, a cytokine regulating interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-producing T helper type 1 (Th1) polarization response, at the transcriptional levels. The inhibitory effect of Cb-EE seemed to be due to activator protein-1 (AP-1) translocation inhibition, according to immunoblotting analysis with nuclear fraction and luciferase assay. In agreement with this, Cb-EE strongly suppressed the phosphorylation of p38, a prime signal to stimulate AP-1 translocation and IL-12 production, strongly suppressed by SB203580, a p38 inhibitor. Furthermore, this extract also suppressed IFN-γ production in both phytohemaglutinin A and LPS-activated splenocytes. Our results suggest that Cb-EE can be applied as a Th1 response regulatory herbal medicine.
- SourceAvailable from: Gi-Ho Sung[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Metabolic alterations of Cordyceps bassiana mycelium were investigated under the following culture medium and light conditions: dextrose agar supplemented with 0.5% yeast extract (SDAY) medium with light (SL), SDAY medium without light (SD), nut medium without light (ND), and iron-supplemented SDAY medium without light (FD). The levels of asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glutamine, histidine, lysine, ornithine, and proline were significantly higher under SD and SL conditions. The levels of most of the alcohols, saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, fatty acid esters, sterols, and terpenes were higher under the ND condition than in the other conditions, but beauvericin was not detectable under the ND condition. The FD condition was favorable for the enhanced production of aminomalonic acid, malic acid, mannonic acid, and erythritol. Thus, the metabolic characteristics of C. bassiana can be manipulated by varying the cultivation conditions, rendering this fungus potentially favorable as a nutraceutical and medicinal resource.Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 01/2013; 23(1):47-55. · 1.40 Impact Factor